Melanoma vaccines clinical status and immune endpointsMaurer, Deena M.a; Butterfield, Lisa H.a,b,c,d; Vujanovic, LazarbMelanoma Research: April 2019 - Volume 29 - Issue 2 - p 109–118 doi: 10.1097/CMR.0000000000000535 REVIEW ARTICLE Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics It has been known for decades that the immune system can be spontaneously activated against melanoma. The presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in tumor deposits is a positive prognostic factor. Cancer vaccination includes approaches to generate, amplify, or skew antitumor immunity. To accomplish this goal, tested approaches involve administration of tumor antigens, antigen presenting cells or other immune modulators, or direct modulation of the tumor. Because the success of checkpoint blockade can depend in part on an existing antitumor response, cancer vaccination may play an important role in future combination therapies. In this review, we discuss a variety of melanoma vaccine approaches and methods to determine the biological impact of vaccination. Departments of aImmunology bMedicine cSurgery dClinical and Translational Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA Correspondence to Lisa H. Butterfield, PhD, University of Pittsburgh, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center 5117 Centre Avenue, Suite 1.27 Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA Tel: +1 412 623 1418; fax: +1 412 624 0264; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Received August 23, 2018 Accepted October 7, 2018 Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.