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Melanoma vaccines

clinical status and immune endpoints

Maurer, Deena M.a; Butterfield, Lisa H.a,b,c,d; Vujanovic, Lazarb

doi: 10.1097/CMR.0000000000000535

It has been known for decades that the immune system can be spontaneously activated against melanoma. The presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in tumor deposits is a positive prognostic factor. Cancer vaccination includes approaches to generate, amplify, or skew antitumor immunity. To accomplish this goal, tested approaches involve administration of tumor antigens, antigen presenting cells or other immune modulators, or direct modulation of the tumor. Because the success of checkpoint blockade can depend in part on an existing antitumor response, cancer vaccination may play an important role in future combination therapies. In this review, we discuss a variety of melanoma vaccine approaches and methods to determine the biological impact of vaccination.

Departments of aImmunology



dClinical and Translational Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

Correspondence to Lisa H. Butterfield, PhD, University of Pittsburgh, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center 5117 Centre Avenue, Suite 1.27 Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA Tel: +1 412 623 1418; fax: +1 412 624 0264; e-mail:

Received August 23, 2018

Accepted October 7, 2018

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