ORIGINAL ARTICLES: Clinical researchA multidisciplinary approach to toxicity management of modern immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapyKottschade, Lisa; Brys, Adam; Peikert, Tobias; Ryder, Mabel; Raffals, Laura; Brewer, Jerry; Mosca, Paul; Markovic, Svetomir for the Midwest Melanoma PartnershipAuthor Information Division of aMedical Oncology bPulmonary and Critical Care Medicine cEndocrinology dGastroenterology and Hepatology eDermatology fHematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota gDuke University School of Medicine hDivision of Advance Oncologic and GI Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA Correspondence to Lisa Kottschade, MSN, Mayo Clinic 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA Tel: +1 507 293 0571; fax: +1 507 284 1803; e-mail: email@example.com Received January 5, 2016 Accepted May 18, 2016 Melanoma Research: October 2016 - Volume 26 - Issue 5 - p 469-480 doi: 10.1097/CMR.0000000000000273 Buy Metrics Abstract Immune-related Adverse Events (irAEs) are the most significant toxicities associated with the use of checkpoint inhibitors, and result from disinhibition of the host’s immune homeostasis. The adverse effects experienced from immunotherapy are significantly different from those of chemotherapy and, to a lesser extent, targeted therapy. Early recognition and diagnosis of these toxicities is often challenging, but is critically important because of the potentially life-threatening nature and associated morbidity. Gastrointestinal, dermatologic, endocrine, and liver toxicities are the most commonly observed. Less commonly, the eyes, pancreas, kidneys, lungs, bone marrow, or nervous system may be affected. Although most irAEs may resolve with supportive care or discontinuation of drug, in severe cases, they may require hospitalization and immune suppressants, such as steroids, and/or may even cause death. The management of immune-related side effects requires a multidisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.