Vaginal carcinoma is considered the rarest gynaecological neoplasm, accounting for only about 1% to 3% of all gynaecological malignancies.[1,2] Vaginal carcinoma with prolapse is very rare, but in elderly women 13.6% to 16.3% of total vaginal cancer coexist with prolapse.
Some authors report the metastases of vaginal cancer coexisting with prolapse to the chest, nodes, liver, iliac bone.[3,4]
To the best of authors’ knowledge, there is no case description with bladder involvement.
The aim of this report is to present the case of primary vaginal squamous cell carcinoma (SSC) with bladder involvement in uterine prolapse.
2 Case report
A 69-year-old patient (G6 P6) (height, 155 cm; weight, 66 kg) reported vaginal prolapse for several years and incontinence, abdominal pain and hematuria. Comorbidities: type 2 diabetes for 20 years, circulatory failure, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, anaemia, urinary tract infection, hypertension, chronic biliary gastritis, cervical osteoarthritis.
Physical examination on admission revealed anterior vaginal and uterine walls prolapse, with 8 cm in diameter large ulcerated lesion (Fig. 1) located on the anterior vaginal wall. Diagnostic biopsy of the lesion revealed squamous cell carcinoma (Fig. 2).
Additional tests: hemoglobin 11.0 g/dL (12.0–16.0); hematocrit 33.9% (37.0–47.0); erythrocytes 4.34 × 106/uL (4.00–5.00); MCV 78.1 fL (80–94); MCH 25.3 pg (27.0–31.0); MCHC 32.4 g/dL 931.0–37.0); RDW-SD 48.3 fL (36.4–46.3); RDW-CV 17.7% (11.7–14.4); Blood Plate 296 × 103/Ul (140–400); plate distribution width (PDW) 11.6 fL (9.80–16.20); MPV 9.8 fL (9.40–12.50); platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) 24.1% (19.10–46.60); WBC 8.12 × 103/ul (4.0–10.0); Macro R 6.7%; Micro R 7.9%; total protein 7.1 g/dL (range 6.3–8.2); chlorides 112.0 mmol/L (98.0–107.0); activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) 29.0 s (25.9–36.6); prothrombin time 9.2 s (7.6–11.4); Prothrombin index 103.7% (80.0–120.0); INR 1.0 (0.9–1.3); D-dimer 2 208.8 ng/mL (<500.0); fibrinogen 503.9 mg/dL (180.0–400.0); glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 27 mL/min/1.73 m2 (>60.0); glucose 115 mg/dL (70–99); creatinine 1.85 mg/dL (0.52–1.04); urea 66 mg/dL (15–43); potassium 4.9 mmol/L (3.5–5.1); sodium 144.0 mmol/L (137.0–145.0); TSH 0.50 uIU/mL (0.27–4.20).
Sagittal pelvic CT showed protruded vagina, infiltrated bladder wall, uterus, and rectum. In frontal CT scan of abdomen, enlarged pelvic iliac nodes, hydronephrosis of the left kidney with left hydroureter, in the right kidney nephrostomic catheter were observed (Fig. 3).
Cystoscopy-mucosal lesions were found in the bladder (Fig. 4). The diagnostic biopsies were collected from the urethra and the bladder (Fig. 5).
Symptomatic treatment included: InsulinueGensulin R t.i.d. (2–6 units)sc, Amlodypinum 2 × 10 mg, 0.9%NaCl 2 × 500 ml iv., Clexan (Enoxaparinumnatricum) 2 × 0.6 sc, Ramiprilum 5 mg 1 × 1, Captoprilum 25 mg 1 × 1.
The patient was disqualified from surgery due to the severity of the disease, lymph node metastases, and coexisting comorbidities. Only palliative nephrostomy was performed.
The patient signed informed consents. In our case the patient accepted regular and proved diagnosis and therapy in Clinical Department of Urology, so the ethical approval was not necessary.
The paper presents the vaginal cancer coexisting with ICS-IV prolapse in a 69-year-old woman. Other papers described vaginal carcinoma with coexisting prolapse stage III in ICS in 15 cases, while stage IV only in 3 cases. The age of the patients in 19 described cases was 44 to 83 years. The data from the literature is presented in Table 1.[1,3–14,15] In the available papers, only 3 publications reviewed the literature: both Ghosh and Wang analyze data from 5 papers,[10,13] while Kowalski analyzes 8 papers. In the presented case bilateral hydronephrosis occurred. According to the literature, hydronephrosis may be due to profound static disorders.[16–19] In 5 papers (6 cases) of vaginal cancer and prolapse, hydronephrosis was also reported.[1,3–5,15] In our case, bladder involvement was diagnosed on the basis of the diagnostic biopsies collected in the cystoscopy. Bladder involvement in vaginal cancer qualifies the case as stage IVa FIGO. In the studies on vaginal carcinoma without prolapse, the incidence of stage IVa is only estimated at 8.98%. In our case, as in Sonkusare's case, kidney failure has occurred. According to the author, this failure was due to prolonged prolapse and inferior obstruction. In our case, the diabetologist suspected that renal failure was associated with diabetes, in the case described by Sonkusare diabetes was present, as in the present case, for more than 20 years.
In the presented case, squamous cell carcinoma was found in both vaginal and bladder wall specimens. Interestingly, the cases of reversed metastases from urogenital bladder cancer to the vagina have been reported in the literature.[21–26]
Considering the cause of hydronephrosis, the lower obstruction may be due to bladder involvement. Obstructions of this type are found in cervical carcinoma, where hydronephrosis qualifies cervical cancer cases to stage III FIGO. Perhaps in our case this hydronephrosis may be caused by parallel bladder infiltration and prolapse. It cannot be ruled out that diabetes was involved in the development of renal failure.
Literature provides a variety of treatment options for vaginal cancer with prolapse including surgical treatment, radiotherapy, and palliative treatment (Table 1). It should be emphasized that radiotherapy alone in such cases is associated with the complications due to the exposure of hernia to radiation. Rao reports 2 cases of vesicovaginal fistula after radiotherapy, while Howat describes the case in which stoma was necessary after radiotherapy. Among the patients treated surgically, hysterectomy with adnexa and extensive vaginal excision was performed (Table 1).
In the present case due to the advanced stage, accompanying diseases, metastases, the usual, surgical treatment was abandoned and only palliative nephrostomy was used. In the literature only two cases were limited to palliative treatment.
In the case of coincidence of vaginal cancer and prolapse, there is possibility of bladder involvement and cystoscopic evaluation should be considered.
Coexisting hydronephrosis may be a result of prolapsed and/or bladder involvement.
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