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Peripheral osteoma of the nasal bone after laser treatment

A case report

Hwang, Jae ha MD, PhD; Lee, Dong gyu MD; Kim, Kwang seog MD, PhD; Lee, Sam yong MD, PhD

Section Editor(s): NA.,

doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000017036
Research Article: Clinical Case Report
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Introduction: Peripheral osteoma, which arises from the periosteum, commonly develops in the head and neck region and is found frequently in the mandible, maxilla, and paranasal sinuses. However, osteoma of the face, especially from the nasal bone, is quite rare.

Patient concerns: A 34-year-old female visited our outpatient department with a small mass on the nose. She had n laser treatment of nevus at the same spot 14 years before, and it had enlarged slowly since 10 years before.

Diagosis: Computed tomography scan revealed a 0.7 × 0.5 cm sized radio-opaque tumor of the nasal bone.

Interventions: Under general anesthesia, surgical excision was performed through a transcolumellar and infracartilaginous incision. The excised tumor was a 0.7 × 0.5 cm sized hard mass.

Outcomes: Biopsy confirmed it as a peripheral osteoma. After tumor removal, structural stability of nasal framework including bone and cartilage was maintained, and symmetry of the nasal dorsum was acquired.

Conclusion: Chronic osteoma can compress the abutting structures. In the case of the nose, either structural instability or asymmetry can occur. By applying open rhinoplasty techniques, postoperative scars could be hidden and additional correction of the affected structure could be carried out if necessary. As a result, the surgeon can achieve the functional and esthetic outcomes simultaneously.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

∗Correspondence: Jae Ha Hwang, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chonnam National University Medical School, 42 Jebong-ro, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61469, Republic of Korea (e-mail: psjhhwang@daum.net).

Abbreviations: CT = computed tomography, MRI = magnetic resonance imaging.

How to cite this article: Hwang Jh, Lee Dg, Kim Ks, Lee Sy. Peripheral osteoma of the nasal bone after laser treatment. Medicine. 2019;98:40(e17036).

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0

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1 Introduction

Osteoma is a benign osteogenic tumor, arising from the proliferation of compact or cancellous bone.[1] It can be central, peripheral, or of an extraskeletal type. Peripheral osteoma arises from periosteum and its etiology is still unclear; true neoplasia, hamartoma, reactional mechanism, trauma, or infection has been considered.[2]

Peripheral osteoma commonly develops in the craniofacial region and is found frequently in the mandible, maxilla, and paranasal sinuses.[1–4] However, osteoma of the face, especially arising from the nasal bone, is quite rare.[5,6] This article reports a case of peripheral osteoma located on the nasal bone.

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2 Methods

We obtained the patient's medical records and reviewed the related literature. Informed written consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and accompanying images. This study was approved by the Chonnam National University Hospital Institutional Review Board.

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3 Case report

A 34-year-old female visited our outpatient department on account of a small mass on the nose (Fig. 1A). She had had a laser treatment of nevus at the same spot 14 years before, and it had enlarged slowly since 10 years before. On physical examination, a bulge was observed on the right side of the nose. It was a hard and fixed mass without tenderness. On the computed tomography (CT) image, a well-localized 0.7 × 0.5 cm sized radio-opaque tumor on the right side of the nasal bone was observed (Fig. 2A).

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 2

Under general anesthesia, surgical excision was performed through a transcolumellar and infracartilaginous incision. The nasal skin was elevated through the dissection in the supraperichondrial plane, and around the keystone area, dissection proceeded in the subperiosteal plane. A hard, pedunculated mass fixed to the bone was visualized and removed via osteotomy. The excised tumor was 0.7 × 0.5 cm in size (Fig. 3A). Biopsy confirmed a peripheral osteoma (Fig. 3B). After tumor removal, structural stability of bony and cartilaginous nasal framework was preserved and symmetry of the nasal dorsum was acquired (Fig. 1B).

Figure 3

Figure 3

On the contrast-enhanced facial CT scan 6 months later, no remnant lesion or recurrence was observed (Fig. 2B).

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4 Discussion

Osteoma is a benign, slowly growing osteogenic tumor, arising from the proliferation of compact or cancellous bone.[1] Among them, peripheral osteoma arises from the periosteum, and its pathogenesis is multifactorial: true neoplasia, hamartoma, and reactional mechanism including trauma or infection.[2] Iatrogenic injury to the periosteum during surgery or laser treatment could also provoke a peripheral osteoma.

Osteomas frequently develop in the craniofacial region, particularly in the paranasal sinus and mandible. They can cause asymmetry, malocclusion, headache, neuralgia, paresthesia, and ophthalmic symptoms in case of intraorbital extension.[7,8] However, an osteoma arising from the nasal bone is quite rare,[6] and is less likely to present with the above symptoms. An osteoma of the nasal bone is usually painless and asymptomatic, and causes irregularity of the nose.[5,6]

CT is the criterion standard diagnostic tool, and shows a radiopaque mass with demarcated boundaries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be useful in intracranial or intraorbital involvement.[3] In addition, multiple osteoma with intestinal polyposis should point toward the diagnosis of Gardner syndrome.[9]

In incidentally detected, asymptomatic osteoma, treatment is not mandatory. However, if it is symptomatic or grows rapidly, surgical excision should be recommended.[7] Osteoma of the paranasal sinus can be treated with external or endoscopic surgery. Endoscopic surgery in these cases is well established.[3] However, no standard surgical procedure is available for cases of osteoma of nasal bone because of its uncommon occurrence. It can be excised through a direct skin incision right above the lesion, or using open rhinoplasty incision: transcolummellar incision with infracartilaginous extensions.[5,6] The former is simple and straightforward but results in postoperative scarring. Hence, it is suitable for persons who are insensitive to esthetic outcomes, like the elderly population. The latter is delicate and more time-consuming, yet it could effectively hide the scar. In young or female patients, excision using the open rhinoplasty technique is more favored.

In the case of an osteoma of the nasal bone, chronic osteoma can compress the abutting structures: the nasal bone or nasal cartilages that form the shape of the nose. Furthermore, while resecting the osteoma, iatrogenic injury could occur to these structures. Either of them causes instability or asymmetry of the nose. Using the open rhinoplasty technique during osteoma excision in the nose, the surgeon can correct the asymmetry and reinforce the weakened part with various procedures: columellar strut graft, spreader graft, and so on.

Peripheral osteoma of the nasal bone is an occasional case. However, applying the open rhinoplasty technique, a surgeon could not only easily hide the operative scar, but also revise the functional and esthetic outcomes simultaneously during an excision.

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Author contributions

Conceptualization: Jae Ha Hwang.

Supervision: Kwang Seog Kim, Sam Yong Lee.

Writing – original draft: Jae Ha Hwang, Dong Gyu Lee.

Writing – review & editing: Jae Ha Hwang.

Jae Ha Hwang orcid: 0000-0001-6992-8067.

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References

[1]. Boffano P, Roccia F, Campisi P, et al. Review of 43 osteomas of the craniomaxillofacial region. J Oral Maxillofacial Surg 2012;70:1093–5.
[2]. Horikawa FK, de Freitas RR, Maciel FA, et al. Peripheral osteoma of the maxillofacial region: a study of 10 cases. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2012;78:38–43.
[3]. Castelnuovo P, Valentini V, Giovannetti F, et al. Osteomas of the maxillofacial district: endoscopic surgery versus open surgery. J Craniofac Surg 2008;19:1446–52.
[4]. Wanyura H, Kamiński A, Stopa Z. Treatment of osteomas located between the anterior cranial base and the face. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2005;33:267–75.
[5]. Boffano P, Roccia F, Gallesio C, et al. Nasal bone osteoma. J Craniofac Surg 2013;24:1503–4.
[6]. Savas SA, Savas E, Karakaya YA. Outer side of the nasal bone osteoma. J Craniofac Surg 2017;28:e399–400.
[7]. Larrea-Oyarbide N, Valmaseda-Castellón E, Berini-Aytés L, et al. Osteomas of the craniofacial region. Review of 106 cases. J Oral Pathol Med 2008;37:38–42.
[8]. Sayan NB, Üçok C, Karasu HA, et al. Peripheral osteoma of the oral and maxillofacial region: a study of 35 new cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2002;60:1299–301.
[9]. Boffano P, Bosco GF, Gerbino G. The surgical management of oral and maxillofacial manifestations of Gardner syndrome. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010;68:2549–54.
Keywords:

Nose; osteoma; rhinoplasty

Copyright © 2019 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.