Osteoarthritis has been found to progress more after resection of the lateral than of the medial meniscus.[18–22] X-ray images after resection of the lateral meniscus has shown osteoarthritis in 38% to 84% of knees.[12,18,23,24] Age >40 years, obesity (BMI> 30 kg/m2), lower limb alignment (valgus knee), and cartilage degeneration during initial arthroscopy were found to be risk factors for osteoarthritis after resection of the lateral meniscus. Moreover, the risk of OA is higher after total than partial resection of the meniscus, with stress being positively associated with the extent of meniscal resection, particularly following total resection of the meniscus with the 3D finite element knee model. Many of the knees in our study with moderate generation had undergone total excision of segments of the lateral meniscus. These findings indicated that collagen degeneration of the meniscus starts soon after total resection of any meniscal segment. Type I collagen is predominant (80% by dry weight) at the margin of the meniscus. Type 1 collagen fibers are oriented circumferentially and play an important role in hoop function. Resection of any segment of the meniscus to its margins reduces hoop function, possibly causing early degeneration of articular cartilage. Partial resection of the lateral meniscus may require repair, even if partial, to prevent resection of the margin of the segment.
This study had several limitations, including the small number of patients and the lack of a control group and control areas. Only evaluation of collagen was performed in this study. The articular cartilage consists of water and extracellular matrix, with the latter comprised of water (70%), collagens (20%), and proteoglycans (10%). MRI quality assessment of the articular cartilage includes the T1rho mapping method and delayed phase cartilage MRI to evaluate proteoglycans.[26–34]
. Gold GE, Han E, Stainsby J, et al. Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0 T: relaxation times and image contrast. Am J Roentgenol 2004;183:343–51.
. Razek AA, Fouda NS, Elmetwaley N, et al. Sonography of the knee joint. J Ultrasound 2009;12:53–60.
. Razek AA, El-Basyouni SR. Ultrasound of knee osteoarthritis: interobserver agreement and correlation with Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol 2016;35:997–1001.
. Nieminen MT, Rieppo J, Töyräs J, et al. T2 relaxation reveals spatial collagen architecture in articular cartilage
; a comparative quantitative MRI and polarized light microscopic study. Magn Reson Med 2001;46:487–93.
. Liess C, Lüsse S, Karger N, et al. Detection of changes in cartilage water content using MRI T2 mapping
in vivo. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2002;10:907–13.
. Kijowski R, Blankenbaker DG, Munoz Del Rio A, et al. Evaluation of the articular cartilage
of the knee joint: value of adding a T2 mapping
sequence to a routine MR imaging protocol. Radiology 2013;267:503–13.
. Newbould RD, Miller SR, Toms LD, et al. T2 Measurement of the knee articular cartilage
in osteoarthritis at 3T. J Magn Reson Imaging 2012;35:1422–9.
. Shiomi T, Nishii T, Tamura S, et al. Influence of medial meniscectomy on stress distribution of femoral cartilage in porcine knees: a 3D reconstructed T2 mapping
study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2012;20:1383–90.
. Andreisek G, Weiger M. T2 mapping
of articular cartilage
: current status of research and first clinical applications. Investig Radiol 2014;49:57–62.
. Hesper T, Hosalkar HS, Bittersohl D, et al. T2 mapping
for articular cartilage
assessment: principles, current applications, and future prospects. Skeletal Radiol 2014;43:1429–45.
. Kato K, Arai Y, Ikoma K, et al. Early postoperative cartilage evaluation
by magnetic resonance imaging using T2 mapping
after arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy. Magn Reson Imaging 2015;33:1274–80.
. Hulet C, Menetrey J, Beaufils P, et al. Clinical and radiographic results of arthroscopic partial lateral meniscectomies in stable knees with a minimum follow up of 20 years. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2015;23:225–31.
. Bydder M, Rahal A, Fullerton GD, et al. The magic angle effect: a source of artifact, determinant of image contrast, and technique for imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 2007;25:290–300.
. Mosher TJ, Smith H, Dardzinski BJ, et al. MR imaging and T2 mapping
of femoral cartilage: in vivo determination of the magic angle effect. Am J Roentgenol 2001;177:665–9.
. Walker PS, Erkman MJ. The role of the menisci in force transmission across the knee. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1975;109:184–92.
. Gilbert S, Chen T, Hutchinson ID, et al. Dynamic contact mechanics on the tibial plateau of the human knee during activities of daily living. J Biomech 2014;47:2006–12.
. Kettelkamp DB, Jacobs AW. Tibiofemoral contact area-determination and implications. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1972;54:349–56.
. Chatain F, Adeleine P, Chambat P, et al. A comparative study of medial versus lateral arthroscopic partial meniscectomy on stable knees: 10-year minimum follow-up. Arthroscopy 2003;19:842–9.
. Allen PR, Denham RA, Swan AV. Late degenerative changes after meniscectomy: factors affecting the knee after operation. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1984;66:666–71.
. Appel H. Late results after meniscectomy in the knee joint: a clinical and roentgenologic follow-up investigation. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl 1970;133:1–11.
. Englund M, Lohmander LS. Risk factors for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis fifteen to twenty-two years after meniscectomy. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:2811–9.
. Hede A, Larsen E, Sandberg H. The long term outcome of open total and partial meniscectomy related to the quantity and site of the meniscus removed. Int Orthop 1992;16:122–5.
. Scheller G, Sobau C, Bülow JU. Arthroscopic partial lateral meniscectomy in an otherwise normal knee: clinical, functional, and radiographic results of a long-term follow-up study. Arthroscopy 2001;17:946–52.
. Andersson-Molina H, Karlsson H, Rockborn P. Arthroscopic partial and total meniscectomy: a long-term follow-up study with matched controls. Arthroscopy 2002;18:183–9.
. Yang N, Nayeb-Hashemi H, Canavan PK. The combined effect of frontal plane tibiofemoral knee angle and meniscectomy on the cartilage contact stresses and strains. Ann Biomed Eng 2009;37:2360–72.
. Mosher TJ, Dardzinski BJ. Cartilage MRI T2 relaxation time mapping: overview and applications. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2004;8:355–68.
. Li X, Benjamin Ma C, Link TM, et al. In vivo T(1rho) and T(2) mapping of articular cartilage
in osteoarthritis of the knee using 3T MRI. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2007;15:789–97.
. Menezes NM, Gray ML, Hartke JR, et al. T2 and T1( MRI in articular cartilage
systems. Magn Reson Med 2004;51:503–9.
. Takayama Y, Hatakenaka M, Tsushima H, et al. T1ρ is superior to T2 mapping
for the evaluation of articular cartilage
denaturalization with osteoarthritis: radiological-pathological correlation after total knee arthroplasty. Eur J Radiol 2013;82:192–8.
. Nishioka H, Hirose J, Nakamura E, et al. T1rho and T2 mapping
reveal the in vivo extracellular matrix of articular cartilage
. J Magn Reson Imaging 2012;35:147–55.
. Wirth W, Larroque S, Davies RY, et al. Comparison of 1-year vs 2-year change in regional cartilage thickness in osteoarthritis results from 346 participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2011;19:74–83.
. Tsushima H, Okazaki K, Takayama Y, et al. Evaluation of cartilage degradation in arthritis using T1rho magnetic resonance imaging mapping. Rheumatol Int 2012;32:2867–75.
. Zarins ZA, Bolbos RI, Pialat JB, et al. Cartilage, and meniscus assessment using T1rho and T2 measurements in healthy subjects and patients with osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2010;18:1408–16.
. Burstein D, Velyvis J, Scott KT, et al. Protocol issues for delayed Gd(DTPA)(2-)-enhanced MRI of cartilage(dGEMRIC) for clinical evaluation of articular cartilage
. Magn Reson Med 2001;45:36–41.