Heptadactylia is a rare congenital disorder from the polydactyly family. Polydactyly is generally classified into 3 major groups: preaxial (medial ray), postaxial (lateral ray), and central polydactyly. Most common cases are related to preaxial or postaxial polydactyly. The rarity of central polydactyly can be explained in 3 ways. First, central polydactyly with duplication appearing on metatarsal is pretty uncommon. Second, the duplication appears isolated on the foot. Polydactyly is mostly associated with other physical defects or others duplications. Last, the duplication of the digital rays does not appear once but twice concerning all the digital rays and makes 7 functional toes appear. We describe this malformation with supporting iconography and radiography as well as its surgical management and functional results.
We analyzed an original case of isolated heptadactylia on the foot of a 14-month-old girl. The supernumerary toes made it impossible for the child to wear standard shoes and her parents were worried about this problem.
Clinical foot examination and radiographs revealed the presence of 7 complete rays. Every toe was composed of phalanx and metatarsal ray. There was no other congenital deformity.
Decision was made to resect the second and third rays (the two most misaligned toes in our consideration). The first stage of surgery was the ray resection and the second stage was the reconstruction of the intermetatarsal ligament to achieve a good functional and cosmetic results.
After wound healing, the child was able to walk alone while wearing normal shoes.
We demonstrated that treatment of foot polydactyly requires careful preoperative assessment, including radiographs and photography. A good clinical evaluation of the medial polydactyly improves type-specific recognition which may enhance the accuracy of surgical treatment. Polydactyly is frequently associated with other malformations. We recommend performing a general clinical examination to exclude concomitant malformations. We recommend surgical treatment around the onset of walking.
Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology Unit, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Correspondence: Nicolas Piette, Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology Unit, Chemin de Montétan 16, 1000 Lausanne, Switzerland (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
The authors have no funding and conflicts of interest to disclose.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
Received April 13, 2017
Received in revised form September 3, 2017
Accepted September 8, 2017