Articles by Diane L. Spatz, PhD, RN-BC, FAAN : MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing

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Articles by Diane L. Spatz, PhD, RN-BC, FAAN

Establishing a Breastfeeding Consortium for Clinicians in Pediatric Outpatient Care

Conover, Nicole; Vanderpool, Jill; Ginsberg, Julie; More

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 48(1):24-29, January/February 2023.

Development of a breastfeeding consortium for ambulatory care clinics in the Children's Hospital of Philadephia primary care network including 31 sites across Pennsylvania and New Jersey is presented. Virtual monthly meetings and education facililtated clinicians knowledge on various breastfeeding topics. The consortium has been especially helpful during the COVID-19 pandemic as birthing hospitals discharge new mothers ealier than usual and often without full assessment of the breastfeeding couplet. Ongoing updates of information from the government and professional organizations were able to be shared with members of the interdisciplinary team.

Lactation Accommodations in the Workplace

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 48(1):50, January/February 2023.

Lactation accommodations in the workplace are critical for breastfeeding mothers. Without a private room, high-quality pump, and time away from the work environment to pump, continuation of breastfeeding while working is a major challenge. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, presents the recent legislation and policy issues in the United States and suggests ways nurses can advocate to support breastfeeding in the workplace.

Effects of Acupressure on Lactation: An Integrated Review

Rosetti, Miriam A.; Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 47(6):345-352, November/December 2022.

Insufficient milk supply is a common reason for new mothers to stop breastfeeding. In this integrated review of the literature, studies on the effects of acupressure on lactation are reviewed. More evidence is needed, however, based on these results, acupressure may be a promising, inexpensive method of enhancing secretory activation during the early days postpartum that perinatal clinicians can learn.

Treatment of Low Milk Supply

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 47(6):361, November/December 2022.

The formula shortage several months ago highlighted the experiences of many women with breastfeeding challenges. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, provides an overview of the state of treatment for low breast milk supply in the United States.

Why Fresh Milk Matters

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 47(5):296, September/October 2022.

Ideally, all babies feed directly at the breast and receive milk at the perfect temperature with no preparation required. This is not always reality for many families for a variety of reasons. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, discusses the importance of feeding fresh breastmilk to hospitalized babies as much as possible, with the next best alternative as the mother's previously frozen, thawed breastmilk.

The Formula Industry is a Powerful Influence on Breastfeeding

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 47(4):229, July/August 2022.

A report issued by the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund emphasizes the powerful influence of formula companies on breastfeeding including all of their targeted strategies. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, summarizes this important report and offers suggestions on what nurses can do to counter formula company actions to promote their products.

Benefits of Mother–Baby Skin-to-Skin Contact

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 47(3):170, May/June 2022.

Skin-to-skin contact has numerous benefits for newborns including supporting breastfeeding. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, reviews some of the most recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses on skin-to-skin contact and offers suggestions for improving rates on maternity units.

2020 mPINC Scores: Opportunities for Improvement

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 47(2):109, March/April 2022.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveys birthing hospitals in the United States every year about various aspects of their breastfeeding practices. Results from the Maternity Practice in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey conducted in 2020 are now available. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, presents a summary of the results and offers suggestions on how nurse leaders in birthing hospitals can do better in aligning their practices with the evidence on interventions to ensure a robust milk supply and promote breastfeeding.

Marijuana and Breastfeeding

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 47(1):54, January/February 2022.

Marijuana use among adults of childbearing age has increased over the years, including during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, reviews the evidence for transmission of components of marijuana to breastmilk and what that means for babies who are being breastfed.

Proactive Planning for Breastfeeding Assistance and Support Post Birth

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 46(6):362, November/December 2021.

During prenatal care, nurses can help families develop a breastfeeding plan for promoting milk supply after birth. A hospital grade breast pump is essential if the baby is not effectively latching or if there a maternal or infant risk factor that could affect coming to volume. Families should be aware there is a critical window for milk supply to effectively be established. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, covers what should be included in a breastfeeding plan.

Mothers' Experiences with Antenatal Milk Expression

Juntereal, Nina A.; Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 46(5):277-283, September/October 2021.

Antenatal milk expression may be a way to avoid formula supplementation for infants with hypoglycemia after birth, but more data are needed on efficacy, safety, and outcomes for mothers and babies. In this study women who practiced antenatal milk expression share their rationale and experiences.

Improving Lactation Education and Support in Primary Care

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 46(5):301, September/October 2021.

Nurses in pediatric and primary care practices that offer well-baby outpatient visits must know about the technical aspects of breastfeeding, the science of human milk and the physiology of lactation so they can support breastfeeding families to reach their personal breastfeeding goals. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, offers suggestions for incorporating lactation care into pediatric and primary care practices.

The COVID-19 Pandemic and Breastfeeding: Concerns & Positive Opportunities

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 46(4):238, July/August 2021.

As nurses, we must continue to promote and protect the use of human milk and breastfeeding during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. We should continue access to online and virtual breastfeeding help but expand opportunities for in-person technical breastfeeding assistance in pediatric offices and in the community. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, offers suggestions for promoting breastfeeding during the pandemic and beyond.

Advocate for the COVID-19 Vaccine for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 46(3):178, May/June 2021.

Many professional organizations and agencies have advocated for pregnant women and breastfeeding women to be offered the COVID-19 vaccine. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, reviews their recommendations and ways nurses can advocate for this population to receive the vaccine.

WIC: Is the United States investing in Breastfeeding or Agriculture?

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 46(2):124, March/April 2021.

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) serves 53% of all infants born in the United States. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, explains some of the aspects of the program that are not widely known.

2020 Breastfeeding Report Card: We Must Do More!

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 46(1):58, January/February 2021.

The 2020 Breastfeeding Report Card by the Centers Disease Control and Prevention was released in August 2020 in time for World Breastfeeding Week and National Breastfeeding Month. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, explains the findings and makes recommendations about what nurses can do to promote breastfeeding.

Mothers Who Engage in Long-Term Informal Milk Sharing

McNally, Deirdre; Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(6):338-343, November/December 2020.

When some new mothers are unable to breastfeed, they seek human milk through informal sources, usually located on line. Three new mothers who obtained human milk for their babies via informal milk sharing networks offer insight into their experiences. Suggestions for helping nurses, midwives, physicians, and other health care providers become more familiar with this process and offer support to their patients are included.

Disparities in Breastfeeding and Use of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(6):374, November/December 2020.

Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, advocates for using momentum from the Black Lives Matter campaign to elevate the critical role of human milk and breastfeeding for Black families. Per Dr. Spatz, while we can't change historical antecedents that have influenced breastfeeding among Black women, we could change the current paradigm to ensure that all families have equal access to evidence-based lactation information, care and support.

Protecting Milk Supply During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(5):310, September/October 2020.

During the pandemic, supporting needs of childbearing families and the role of human milk as a lifesaving medical intervention should not be forgotten. International organizations such as the United Nations Children's Fund and the World Health Organization have recommended early, exclusive breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact during COVID-19 including women who are positive for the virus. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, offers details of these recommendations.

Improving Breastfeeding for Homeless Families

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(4):242, July/August 2020.

Women and families experiencing homelessness face many challenges in breastfeeding. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, discusses two programs offered by the University of Pennsylvania to support breastfeeding mothers living in homeless shelters.

Kangaroo Care for Hospitalized Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

Lisanti, Amy Jo; Buoni, Alessandra; Steigerwalt, Megan; More

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(3):163-168, May/June 2020.

Skin-to-skin care, also known as kangaroo care, has many known benefits for newborns. In this quality improvement project, nurses caring for infants with congenital heart disease requiring corrective surgery in the first few weeks of life developed processes to apply kangaroo care to this patient population and evaluated outcomes. Kangaroo care appears to be feasible and safe for infants with congenital heart disease before and after surgery.

Changing the Prenatal Care Paradigm to Improve Breastfeeding Outcomes

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(3):186, May/June 2020.

A new paradigm for teaching families about benefits of breastfeeding is needed to help all mothers meet their breastfeeding goals. During prenatal care, breastfeeding should be discussed at every visit. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, describes the new paradigm and how to incorporate it into clinical practice.

Using World Breastfeeding Week to Transform Institutional Culture

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(2):126, March/April 2020.

Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, provides details of her hospital's celebration for world breastfeeding week and encourages other hospitals to develop similar activities to promote human milk and breastfeeding.

Using Gender-Neutral Terms in Lactation

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(1):61, January/February 2020.

Recently, the International Lactation Consultants Association released a statement about using inclusive language for lactation. Recommendations include using the term “human milk” rather than “breast milk” or “mother's own milk” and using the term “parent(s)” instead of gendered language. Our expert on breastfeeding, Dr. Spatz, explains how we can apply gender-neutral terminology to all aspects of lactation.

The Need to Improve Human Milk Rates for Vulnerable Infants

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 44(6):360, November/December 2019.

Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, discusses her 10-step model to improve use of human milk and breastfeeding for vulnerable infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. The most vulnerable infants should receive 100% human milk diet for the entire hospital stay and beyond. For preterm or other vulnerable infants, human milk is a life-saving medical intervention. Parental education and support, along with a focus on the critical window of opportunity for establishing milk supply can enhance the likelihood of the infant being fed breastmilk as recommended.

Protecting Breastfeeding for Adolescents who Return to School

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 44(4):236, July/August 2019.

Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, reports on a novel program to promote breastfeeding among teen mothers in Philadelphia by collaborating with the School District of Philadelphia, a state initiative called the Education to Leading to Employment and Career Training, and the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing.

Nurses' Views on Using Pasteurized Donor Human Milk for Hypoglycemic Term Infants

Ferrarello, Debi; Froh, Elizabeth B.; Hinson, Tyonne D.; More

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 44(3):157-163, May/June 2019.

Pasteurized donor human milk has been used for babies in the neonatal intensive care units for many years but has not been considered an option for treating otherwise healthy term newborns with hypoglycemia. In this study, focus groups of nurses were held to get their views on this practice. Their feedback was used to prepare educational resources for nurses and families about use of pasteurized donor human milk for treating healthy term newborn hypoglycemia.

Same-Sex Mothers and Lactation

Juntereal, Nina A.; Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 44(3):164-169, May/June 2019.

There are very limited data about same-sex mothers and lactation. In this study, women who are part of a same-sex couple and had recently given birth were interviewed about their breastfeeding experiences. The findings are helpful to nurses who care for this population and can be the basis for appropriate and sensitive care.

Breastfeeding Guidance for Orthodox Jewish Families When Newborns Require Special Care and Continued Hospitalization

Candelaria, Laura M.; Bressler, Toby; Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 44(2):80-85, March/April 2019.

Cultural practices of Orthodox Jewish families for childbirth and breastfeeding are discussed, with a focus on offering culturally appropriate care when the newborn is hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. As breastfeeding is a critical aspect of motherhood for Orthodox Jewish women, knowing the specifics of best practices in nursing care for this unique population can help women reach their breastfeeding goals.

A Call to Action: The Needs of Breastfeeding Mothers on College and University Campuses

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 44(2):117, March/April 2019.

Colleges and university campuses present a unique environment to meet the needs of breastfeeding women. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, offers an overview of how colleges and universities are helping faculty, staff, students, and campus visitors achieve their breastfeeding goals. She provides some suggestions for improvement.

The New Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative Guidelines

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 43(6):350, November/December 2018.

The World Health Organization has promulgated new guidelines for the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, explains the changes and the status of the guidelines being adopted in the United States.

The Need for Research in Pregnant and Lactating Women

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 43(4):233, July/August 2018.

Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, is a member of the Task Force on Research Specific to Pregnant Women and Lactating Women which was established to advise the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services on current gaps in research for pregnant and lactating women. She shares her thoughts on this important topic.

Travel Considerations for Breastfeeding

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 43(2):113, March/April 2018.

Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, offers suggestions for advising new mothers who are breastfeeding about how to plan for travel.

Affordability and Availability of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 42(6):362, November/December 2017.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released a new position statement on Pasteurized Donor Human Milk (PDHM) earlier this year, emphasizing the importance of PDHM for hospitalized infants. The position statement highlights the need for PDHM for infants less than 1500 grams but acknowledges that there may be a role for PDHM to be used for other infants such as those with abdominal wall defects. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Diane Spatz, discusses this issue in detail.

Say No to Success—Say Yes to Goal Setting

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 42(4):234, July/August 2017.

The choice of words in promoting breastfeeding is very important. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, urges us to consider eliminating “success” from discussions with new mothers who are breastfeeding, and to focus instead on providing realistic information about the potential challenges and the investment in time and effort that is required, and helping them set short-term, mid-term and long term breastfeeding goals.

Is Routine Fortification of Human Milk for Babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Indicated?

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 42(2):117, March/April 2017.

Although multi-nutrient fortification of human milk for babies in the neonatal intensive care unit is routine in the United States, a recent Cochrane Review suggests limited benefits. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, offers suggestions for evaluating current practice on human milk fortification.

Breastfeeding in the Context of Palliative Care

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 41(6):374, November/December 2016.

Offering mothers options for breastfeeding should be part of a comprehensive perinatal palliative care program. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, describes how breastfeeding is integrated into the palliative care program at the Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia where she is a nurse researcher and director of the lactation program.

What Is Your mPINC Score?

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 41(4):254, July/August 2016.

Do you know your hospital's mPINC (Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care) score? You should. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, explains this important metric of breastfeeding practices in the hospital setting.

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