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Articles by Diane L. Spatz, PhD, RN-BC, FAAN

Mothers Who Engage in Long-Term Informal Milk Sharing

McNally, Deirdre; Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(6):338-343, November/December 2020.

When some new mothers are unable to breastfeed, they seek human milk through informal sources, usually located on line. Three new mothers who obtained human milk for their babies via informal milk sharing networks offer insight into their experiences. Suggestions for helping nurses, midwives, physicians, and other health care providers become more familiar with this process and offer support to their patients are included.

Disparities in Breastfeeding and Use of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(6):374, November/December 2020.

Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, advocates for using momentum from the Black Lives Matter campaign to elevate the critical role of human milk and breastfeeding for Black families. Per Dr. Spatz, while we can't change historical antecedents that have influenced breastfeeding among Black women, we could change the current paradigm to ensure that all families have equal access to evidence-based lactation information, care and support.

Protecting Milk Supply During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(5):310, September/October 2020.

During the pandemic, supporting needs of childbearing families and the role of human milk as a lifesaving medical intervention should not be forgotten. International organizations such as the United Nations Children's Fund and the World Health Organization have recommended early, exclusive breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact during COVID-19 including women who are positive for the virus. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, offers details of these recommendations.

Improving Breastfeeding for Homeless Families

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(4):242, July/August 2020.

Women and families experiencing homelessness face many challenges in breastfeeding. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, discusses two programs offered by the University of Pennsylvania to support breastfeeding mothers living in homeless shelters.

Kangaroo Care for Hospitalized Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

Lisanti, Amy Jo; Buoni, Alessandra; Steigerwalt, Megan; More

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(3):163-168, May/June 2020.

Skin-to-skin care, also known as kangaroo care, has many known benefits for newborns. In this quality improvement project, nurses caring for infants with congenital heart disease requiring corrective surgery in the first few weeks of life developed processes to apply kangaroo care to this patient population and evaluated outcomes. Kangaroo care appears to be feasible and safe for infants with congenital heart disease before and after surgery.

Changing the Prenatal Care Paradigm to Improve Breastfeeding Outcomes

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(3):186, May/June 2020.

A new paradigm for teaching families about benefits of breastfeeding is needed to help all mothers meet their breastfeeding goals. During prenatal care, breastfeeding should be discussed at every visit. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, describes the new paradigm and how to incorporate it into clinical practice.

Using World Breastfeeding Week to Transform Institutional Culture

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(2):126, March/April 2020.

Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, provides details of her hospital's celebration for world breastfeeding week and encourages other hospitals to develop similar activities to promote human milk and breastfeeding.

Using Gender-Neutral Terms in Lactation

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 45(1):61, January/February 2020.

Recently, the International Lactation Consultants Association released a statement about using inclusive language for lactation. Recommendations include using the term “human milk” rather than “breast milk” or “mother's own milk” and using the term “parent(s)” instead of gendered language. Our expert on breastfeeding, Dr. Spatz, explains how we can apply gender-neutral terminology to all aspects of lactation.

The Need to Improve Human Milk Rates for Vulnerable Infants

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 44(6):360, November/December 2019.

Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, discusses her 10-step model to improve use of human milk and breastfeeding for vulnerable infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. The most vulnerable infants should receive 100% human milk diet for the entire hospital stay and beyond. For preterm or other vulnerable infants, human milk is a life-saving medical intervention. Parental education and support, along with a focus on the critical window of opportunity for establishing milk supply can enhance the likelihood of the infant being fed breastmilk as recommended.

Protecting Breastfeeding for Adolescents who Return to School

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 44(4):236, July/August 2019.

Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, reports on a novel program to promote breastfeeding among teen mothers in Philadelphia by collaborating with the School District of Philadelphia, a state initiative called the Education to Leading to Employment and Career Training, and the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing.

Nurses' Views on Using Pasteurized Donor Human Milk for Hypoglycemic Term Infants

Ferrarello, Debi; Froh, Elizabeth B.; Hinson, Tyonne D.; More

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 44(3):157-163, May/June 2019.

Pasteurized donor human milk has been used for babies in the neonatal intensive care units for many years but has not been considered an option for treating otherwise healthy term newborns with hypoglycemia. In this study, focus groups of nurses were held to get their views on this practice. Their feedback was used to prepare educational resources for nurses and families about use of pasteurized donor human milk for treating healthy term newborn hypoglycemia.

Same-Sex Mothers and Lactation

Juntereal, Nina A.; Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 44(3):164-169, May/June 2019.

There are very limited data about same-sex mothers and lactation. In this study, women who are part of a same-sex couple and had recently given birth were interviewed about their breastfeeding experiences. The findings are helpful to nurses who care for this population and can be the basis for appropriate and sensitive care.

Breastfeeding Guidance for Orthodox Jewish Families When Newborns Require Special Care and Continued Hospitalization

Candelaria, Laura M.; Bressler, Toby; Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 44(2):80-85, March/April 2019.

Cultural practices of Orthodox Jewish families for childbirth and breastfeeding are discussed, with a focus on offering culturally appropriate care when the newborn is hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. As breastfeeding is a critical aspect of motherhood for Orthodox Jewish women, knowing the specifics of best practices in nursing care for this unique population can help women reach their breastfeeding goals.

A Call to Action: The Needs of Breastfeeding Mothers on College and University Campuses

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 44(2):117, March/April 2019.

Colleges and university campuses present a unique environment to meet the needs of breastfeeding women. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, offers an overview of how colleges and universities are helping faculty, staff, students, and campus visitors achieve their breastfeeding goals. She provides some suggestions for improvement.

The New Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative Guidelines

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 43(6):350, November/December 2018.

The World Health Organization has promulgated new guidelines for the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, explains the changes and the status of the guidelines being adopted in the United States.

The Need for Research in Pregnant and Lactating Women

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 43(4):233, July/August 2018.

Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, is a member of the Task Force on Research Specific to Pregnant Women and Lactating Women which was established to advise the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services on current gaps in research for pregnant and lactating women. She shares her thoughts on this important topic.

Travel Considerations for Breastfeeding

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 43(2):113, March/April 2018.

Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, offers suggestions for advising new mothers who are breastfeeding about how to plan for travel.

Affordability and Availability of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 42(6):362, November/December 2017.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released a new position statement on Pasteurized Donor Human Milk (PDHM) earlier this year, emphasizing the importance of PDHM for hospitalized infants. The position statement highlights the need for PDHM for infants less than 1500 grams but acknowledges that there may be a role for PDHM to be used for other infants such as those with abdominal wall defects. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Diane Spatz, discusses this issue in detail.

Say No to Success—Say Yes to Goal Setting

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 42(4):234, July/August 2017.

The choice of words in promoting breastfeeding is very important. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, urges us to consider eliminating “success” from discussions with new mothers who are breastfeeding, and to focus instead on providing realistic information about the potential challenges and the investment in time and effort that is required, and helping them set short-term, mid-term and long term breastfeeding goals.

Is Routine Fortification of Human Milk for Babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Indicated?

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 42(2):117, March/April 2017.

Although multi-nutrient fortification of human milk for babies in the neonatal intensive care unit is routine in the United States, a recent Cochrane Review suggests limited benefits. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, offers suggestions for evaluating current practice on human milk fortification.

Breastfeeding in the Context of Palliative Care

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 41(6):374, November/December 2016.

Offering mothers options for breastfeeding should be part of a comprehensive perinatal palliative care program. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, describes how breastfeeding is integrated into the palliative care program at the Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia where she is a nurse researcher and director of the lactation program.

What Is Your mPINC Score?

Spatz, Diane L.

MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 41(4):254, July/August 2016.

Do you know your hospital's mPINC (Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care) score? You should. Our breastfeeding expert, Dr. Spatz, explains this important metric of breastfeeding practices in the hospital setting.

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