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Navigating a Minefield

Meta-Synthesis of Teen Mothers' Breastfeeding Experience

Author Information
MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing: May/June 2020 - Volume 45 - Issue 3 - p E11-E12
doi: 10.1097/NMC.0000000000000636
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Navigating a Minefield: Meta-Synthesis of Teen Mothers' Breastfeeding Experience


  • Read the article. The test for this CE activity can only be taken online at Tests can no longer be mailed or faxed.
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  • There is only one correct answer for each question. A passing score for this test is 12 correct answers. If you pass, you can print your certificate of earned contact hours and access the answer key. If you fail, you have the option of taking the test again at no additional cost.
  • For questions, contact LPD: 1-800-787-8985.
  • Registration Deadline: June 3, 2022.


The authors and planners have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.


LPD will award 1.5 contact hour for this continuing nursing education activity.

LPD is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation.

This activity is also provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP11749 for 1.5 contact hours. LPD is also an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the District of Columbia, Georgia, Florida, West Virginia, New Mexico, and South Carolina, CE Broker #50-1223.


The registration fee for this test is $17.95.


General Purpose:

To provide information on how social contexts intertwine to shape teen mothers' breastfeeding experiences.

Learning Objectives/Outcomes:

After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to:

  1. Summarize issues related to teen mothers' breastfeeding intentions.
  2. Recognize the impacts of stigma and inhospitable spaces on teen mothers' breastfeeding experiences.
  3. Identify benefits of breastfeeding and strategies to increase teen mothers' breastfeeding duration and exclusivity.
  1. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019), among infants born in 2011, what percentage of mothers younger than age 20 were breastfeeding exclusively at 3 months postpartum?
    1. 19.3%
    2. 24.9%
    3. 29.2%
  2. Community norms in teens' social fields favor all of the following except
    1. breastfeeding.
    2. early introduction of solid foods.
    3. formula feeding.
  3. The literature cited in this analysis revealed that teens were deterred from breastfeeding by
    1. baby's reflux.
    2. a new pregnancy.
    3. embarrassment.
  4. According to Tucker et al. (2011), teens who were strongly motivated by the health benefits of breastfeeding were more likely to persevere if they
    1. had the time to breastfeed exclusively.
    2. had strong support from family members or clinicians.
    3. could see that their baby was thriving.
  5. Benson (1996) and Hunter et al. (2015) reported that teens attempted to gain respectability as good mothers by
    1. bringing their partners to clinical appointments.
    2. breastfeeding longer than 6 months.
    3. not missing any clinical appointments.
  6. What did Tucker et al. (2011) report made breastfeeding especially challenging for teen mothers?
    1. going to a job
    2. returning to high school
    3. engaging in social activities
  7. Research by Dyson et al. (2010) revealed that family members' expectation that teens breastfeed privately was problematic because the teens
    1. lived in crowded homes.
    2. did not think it was necessary.
    3. did not want the inconvenience of leaving the room.
  8. Reasons teens reported that they discontinued breastfeeding in the Woods et al. (2013) study was to resume
    1. going out with friends.
    2. drinking soda or alcohol.
    3. taking medication(s).
  9. One of the reasons why weaning occurred earlier than the teen intended, revealed in this metasynthesis, was that the teen
    1. had an insufficient milk supply.
    2. reached her nursing goal.
    3. did not find breastfeeding fulfilling.
  10. As noted in the article, breastfeeding may be foiled by
    1. postpartum depression.
    2. the baby's food allergies.
    3. the baby's preferences.
  11. Compared with other mothers, Geronimus (2013) suggested that, on average, U.S. mothers who breastfeed
    1. are more likely to have sufficient nutrition.
    2. are more likely to live in single-family homes.
    3. are less likely to work for employers who accommodate breastfeeding in the workplace.
  12. Geronimus (2013) suggested that breastfed babies may have lower adult rates of
    1. asthma.
    2. hypertension.
    3. osteoporosis.
  13. Based on the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, compared to mothers aged 30 or older, teen mothers (aged 18 – 19) reported receiving less nursing support to
    1. initiate breastfeeding.
    2. troubleshoot breastfeeding difficulties.
    3. sustain breastfeeding.
  14. Based on BFHI and Ten Steps data, compared to teens who did not room in with their babies, teen mothers who did room in were how much more likely to breastfeed exclusively at 1 week?
    1. twice
    2. three times
    3. four times
  15. In the 2016 study by Olaiya et al., what percentage of teen mothers reported experiencing none of the BFHI-aligned maternity practices?
    1. 4.2%
    2. 9.6%
    3. 14.3%
  16. In the Olaiya et al. (2016) study, any breastfeeding for > 8 weeks was what percentage lower for the teen mothers than for mothers > age 20?
    1. 20%
    2. 30%
    3. 40%
  17. According to the authors, clinical trials of group prenatal care have been done for teen mothers for all of the following except
    1. improvement in birth outcomes
    2. breastfeeding outcomes
    3. emotional support
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