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Same-Sex Mothers and Lactation

MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing: May/June 2019 - Volume 44 - Issue 3 - p E11–E12
doi: 10.1097/NMC.0000000000000545
CE Connection
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Same-Sex Mothers and Lactation


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General Purpose:

To provide information about the lactation experiences of same-sex female couples and to provide suggestions to help nurses create a more inclusive and supportive environment for this population of mothers.

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Learning Objectives/Outcomes:

After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to:

  1. Identify structural barriers and facilitators to motherhood for same-sex female couples.
  2. Outline methods to induce lactation in a nonbirth mother.
  3. Summarize key themes identified by the authors and implications for practice.
  1. One of the primary goals of The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding was to
    1. increase the percentage of breastfed infants.
    2. encourage induced lactation for nonbiological partners.
    3. address the maternal needs of lesbian and bisexual female couples.
  2. According to the United States Census Bureau's report, of 115,000 same-sex couple households that have children, 84% of these households had
    1. adopted children of one partner.
    2. children both partners adopted.
    3. a householder's own children.
  3. The Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council recommend which of the following regarding the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender population's health?
    1. obtaining more training to provide ongoing competence for health professionals in caring for this population
    2. making extremely cautious assumptions about same-sex couple's orientation and identification preferences
    3. searching the nursing literature for information about reporting the maternal needs of lesbian and bisexual female couples
  4. According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), the current state of knowledge indicates that self-identifying lesbians and bisexual women struggle in accessing equitable healthcare due to
    1. inadequate preparation for the challenges of motherhood.
    2. a history of discrimination, stigma, and homophobia.
    3. the lack of a reassuring social support network.
  5. In 2012, ACOG released a statement identifying that one of the barriers lesbian and bisexual women face is
    1. uncertainty about self-identification of gender identity to providers.
    2. criticism from peers about wanting to become parents.
    3. limited access to health care and health insurance.
  6. According to Wojnar and Katzenmeyer and others, procedures necessary for same-sex women to achieve pregnancy impede mothers from joining motherhood due to lack of
    1. financial security.
    2. motivation.
    3. confidence.
  7. Wittig and Spatz indicated that inducing lactation in nonbiological partners requires
    1. using breast-stimulation techniques frequently.
    2. taking fertility drugs for extended periods of time.
    3. developing an acceptance of unsuccessful attempts.
  8. Which of the following types of drugs mimics lactation preparation during the stages of pregnancy as well as lactation during the postpartum period for non-biological partners?
    1. menotropins
    2. dopamine antagonists
    3. gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists
  9. Which of the following medications is an example of a galactagogue?
    1. domperidone
    2. lutropin alfa
    3. oxytocin
  10. Which of the following methods of inducing lactation mimics the natural hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy?
    1. dopamine agonists
    2. ovulation stimulants
    3. estrogen and progesterone supplements
  11. Which of the following medications is used to induce lactation via hormonal supplementation?
    1. cabergoline
    2. oxytocin
    3. ropinirole
  12. The authors noted that their case exemplars illustrate three key themes, one of which is feelings of
    1. isolation.
    2. frustration.
    3. helplessness.
  13. The authors pointed out that their case exemplars highlight the role of non-biological partners as a support system in the form of
    1. availability.
    2. technical help.
    3. challenge recognition.
  14. One way the authors recommend for nurses to show outward indications of inclusion and support for same-sex mothers is to
    1. make appropriate referrals to community resources.
    2. contact a lactation consultant to work with the mothers.
    3. provide brochures with images of same-sex couples and families.
  15. The authors recommend that, to demonstrate inclusion, nurses review medical history and registration forms for
    1. comprehensive reproductive histories.
    2. inclusion of gender-neutral options.
    3. indications of expected outcomes.
  16. The authors suggested that nurses be receptive to same-sex mothers and continue to develop skill sets that
    1. facilitate open communication.
    2. address psychological barriers to success.
    3. determine the need for referral to support groups.
  17. Nurses should avoid assuming that both women in femalepartnered couples
    1. have an appropriate context driving their desire to breastfeed.
    2. want to participate in the process of lactation.
    3. have effective role models for parenting.
  18. A study limitation the authors identified was
    1. lack of generalizability.
    2. weak content analysis.
    3. flawed data collection.
  19. The authors stated that, in future studies, the focus will be on
    1. lactation troubleshooting.
    2. therapeutic relationships.
    3. healthy term infants.
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