The objective of this study was to examine the current state of literature on group prenatal care and its impact on maternal outcomes and racial disparities in adverse maternal outcomes.
We conducted a scoping review of literature published between January 2010 and December 2020 using the PRISMA-ScR reporting checklist.
Eligible studies were identified using key words and MeSH terms in PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Inclusion criteria were studies that were (a) conducted in the United States; (b) published between January 2010 and December 2020; (c) in English; (d) focused on the primary investigation of group prenatal care and reporting on maternal comorbidity outcomes; and (e) an observational study or clinical trial.
Nine studies met inclusion criteria. They reported on outcomes of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, final A1C among patients with gestational diabetes mellitus, and postpartum hemorrhage. None reported on racial disparities for minoritized populations. Among all reported maternal outcomes, results were mixed, providing inconclusive evidence.
Outcomes from group prenatal care focus more on neonatal outcomes than maternal outcomes. More studies are needed with stronger designs. Given pervasive racial disparities in U.S. maternal mortality, future studies should assess how group prenatal care participation may contribute to fewer experiences of racial discrimination and implicit bias for Black women in maternity care.