Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Share this article on:

Nutrition Profiles of American Women in the Third Trimester

Gennaro, Susan DSN, RN, FAAN; Biesecker, Babette MS, RN, FNP-BC; Fantasia, Heidi Collins PhD, RN, WHNP-BC; Nguyen, Minh RN; Garry, David DO, FACOG

MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing: March-April 2011 - Volume 36 - Issue 2 - p 120–126
doi: 10.1097/NMC.0b013e3182057a13
Feature Article

Purpose To develop a profile of common nutritional patterns among pregnant African American women that will assist healthcare providers in identifying areas for improvement and change.

Study Design This study was part of a larger NIH-funded (R03NR008548-01) study that examined risk factors associated with preterm labor and birth in high- and low-risk African American women. Data were collected on high-risk mothers (women experiencing preterm labor) before 34 weeks gestation and every 4 weeks until birth. Data were also collected on the low-risk mothers beginning at 28 weeks and then every 4 weeks until birth. For this study, high- and low-risk groups were collapsed to examine food choices over time in all participants (n = 58).

Methods Nutrition intake was examined by conducting one 24-hour diet recall at each time point. Food models and portion size pictures were used to improve accuracy.

Results Overall, dietary intake was suboptimal, and micro- and macronutrient intake during the third trimester did not vary. Energy (caloric) intake was inadequate with the time-averaged probability of having inadequate caloric intake 64.4%. Protein intake was the most likely nutritional factor to be inadequate with a time-averaged estimated probability of inadequate intake 25.1%. Micronutrient intake from food was also inadequate.

Clinical Implications The persistence of suboptimal nutritional intake during the third trimester supports the importance of continually assessing nutritional status throughout pregnancy, with a focus on caloric requirements and protein intake.

Women at high risk for preterm labor and birth were found to have inadequate nutrition for both micronutrients and macronutrients.

Susan Gennaro is Dean and Professor, Boston College, William F. Connell School of Nursing. She can be reached via e-mail at

Babette Biesecker is a Coordinator Adult Nurse Practitioner/Holistic Nurse Practitioner Program, New York University, College of Nursing.

Heidi Collins Fantasia is a Post Doctoral Fellow, Boston College, William F. Connell School of Nursing, Chestnut Hill, MA.

Minh Nguyen is a Staff Nurse, Providence Health Center, Waco, Tex.

David Garry is an Associate Professor of Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology and Womens Health and director of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY.

This study was funded by NIH Grant No. R03NR008548-01.

The authors have disclosed that there are no financial relationships related to this article.

© 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.