The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) State Innovation Models (SIM) Initiative funds states to accelerate delivery system and payment reforms. All SIM states focus on improving diabetes care, but SIM’s effect on 30-day readmissions among adults with diabetes remains unclear.
A quasi-experimental research design estimated the impact of SIM on 30-day hospital readmissions among adults with diabetes in 3 round 1 SIM states (N=671,996) and 3 comparison states (N=2,719,603) from 2010 to 2015. Difference-in-differences multivariable logistic regression models that incorporated 4-group propensity score weighting were estimated. Heterogeneity of SIM effects by grantee state and for CMS populations were assessed.
In adjusted difference-in-difference analyses, SIM was associated with an increase in odds of 30-day hospital readmission among patients in SIM states in the post-SIM versus pre-SIM period relative to the ratio in odds of readmission among patients in the comparison states post-SIM versus pre-SIM (ratio of adjusted odds ratio=1.057, P=0.01). Restricting the analyses to CMS populations (Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries), resulted in consistent findings (ratio of adjusted odds ratio=1.057, P=0.034). SIM did not have different effects on 30-day readmissions by state.
We found no evidence that SIM reduced 30-day readmission rates among adults with diabetes during the first 2 years of round 1 implementation, even among CMS beneficiaries. It may be difficult to reduce readmissions statewide without greater investment in health information exchange and more intensive use of payment models that promote interorganizational coordination.