In the United States, 42% of adults, and 81% of adults over 65 years of age live with multiple chronic condition (MCC). Current interventions to facilitate engagement in care focus primarily on the patient; however, many individuals with MCC manage and live with their conditions within the context of their family. This review sought to identify interventions used to facilitate patient and/or family engagement among adults with MCC.
We adhered as closely as possible to PRISMA guidelines and conducted a systematic scoping review using a modified approach by Arksey and O’Malley. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus using terms related to MCC, patient and family engagement, and intervention. We included articles that: (1) were published in English; (2) were peer-reviewed; (3) described an engagement intervention (with or without a comparator); and (4) targeted individuals with MCC. We abstracted data from included articles and classified them using the Multidimensional Framework for Patient and Family Engagement in Health and Health Care, and the Classification Model of Patient Engagement.
We identified 21 discrete interventions. Six (29%) were classified as having the highest degree of engagement. Eighteen (85%) focused on engagement at the direct care level. Only one was specifically designed to engage families.
Many engagement interventions currently exist for adults with MCC. Few of these interventions foster the highest degree of engagement; most focus on engagement at the level of direct care and do not specifically target family member involvement.