Despite well-established programs, influenza vaccination rates in US adults are well below federal benchmarks and exhibit well-documented, persistent racial and ethnic disparities. The causes of these disparities are multifactorial and complex, though perceived racial/ethnic discrimination in health care is 1 hypothesized mechanism.
To assess the role of perceived discrimination in health care in mediating influenza vaccination RACIAL/ETHNIC disparities in chronically ill US adults (at high risk for influenza-related complications).
We utilized 2011–2012 data from the Aligning Forces for Quality Consumer Survey on health and health care (n=8127), nationally representative of chronically ill US adults. Logistic regression marginal effects examined the relationship between race/ethnicity and influenza vaccination, both unadjusted and in multivariate models adjusted for determinants of health service use. We then used binary mediation analysis to calculate and test the significance of the percentage of this relationship mediated by perceived discrimination in health care.
Respondents reporting perceived discrimination in health care had half the uptake as those without discrimination (32% vs. 60%, P=0.009). The change in predicted probability of vaccination given perceived discrimination experiences (vs. none) was large but not significant in the fully adjusted model (−0.185; 95% CI, −0.385, 0.014). Perceived discrimination significantly mediated 16% of the unadjusted association between race/ethnicity and influenza vaccination, though this dropped to 6% and lost statistical significance in multivariate models.
The causes of persistent racial/ethnic disparities are complex and a single explanation is unlikely to be sufficient. We suggest reevaluation in a larger cohort as well as potential directions for future research.
*Department of Health Policy and Administration, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
†Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL
Supported by a grant for the Aligning Forces for Quality evaluation provided by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Also supported by the Department of Health Policy and Administration at Pennsylvania State University, and assistance provided by the Population Research Institute at Penn State University, which is supported by an infrastructure grant from the National Institutes of Health (2R24HD041025-11). This publication was also supported, in part, by grants UL1 TR000127 and KL2 TR000126 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) to Patricia Y. Miranda.
This and other AF4Q evaluation research, including data analysis or use, is reviewed and approved by the Pennsylvania State University Institutional Review Board under application PRAMS00037728.
Presented (roundtable) at the Medical Care section of the 2015 APHA Annual Meeting & Exposition, November 3, 2015, Chicago, IL.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Reprints: Muriel Jean-Jacques, MD, MAPP, Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 750N. Lake Shore Rubloff Building 10th Floor, Chicago, IL 60611. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.