We examined the effect of hospital type and medical coverage on the risk of 1-year mortality of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants while adjusting for possible selection bias.
The study population was limited to singleton live birth infants having birth weight between 500 and 1500 g with no congenital anomalies who were born in Arkansas hospitals between 2001 and 2007. Propensity score (PS) matching and PS covariate adjustment were used to mitigate selection bias. In addition, a conventional multivariable logistic regression model was used for comparison purposes.
Generally, all 3 analytical approaches provided consistent results in terms of the estimated relative risk, absolute risk reduction, and the number needed to treat. Using the PS matching method, VLBW infants delivered at a hospital with a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were associated with a 35% relative decrease (95% bootstrap confidence interval, 18.5%–48.9%) in the risk of 1-year mortality as compared with those infants delivered at non-NICU hospitals. Furthermore, our results showed that on average, 16 VLBW infants (95% bootstrap confidence interval, 11–32), would need to be delivered at a hospital with an NICU to prevent 1 additional death at 1 year. However, there was not a difference in the risk of 1-year mortality between VLBW infants born to Medicaid-insured versus non–Medicaid-insured women.
Estimated relative risk of infant mortality was significantly lower for births that occurred in hospitals with an NICU; therefore, greater efforts should be made to deliver VLBW neonates in an NICU hospital.