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Cost Savings Attributable to Reductions in Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay for Mechanically Ventilated Patients

Kahn, Jeremy M. MD, MSc*†‡; Rubenfeld, Gordon D. MD, MSc§; Rohrbach, Jeffery MSN; Fuchs, Barry D. MD*

doi: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e31817d9342
Original Article
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Objectives: To estimate the actual cost savings that could be achieved through reductions in intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation by determining the short-run marginal variable cost of an ICU and ventilator day.

Research Design: Retrospective cohort study in a university-affiliated teaching hospital.

Subjects: All patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ICU for more than 48 hours (n = 1778) from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006.

Measures: The hospital's administrative and cost databases were used to determine total costs, variable costs, and direct-variable costs for each patient on each individual ICU and hospital day.

Results: Direct-variable costs comprised 19.3% of total ICU costs and 18.4% of total hospital costs. Marginal direct-variable costs (the cost of each additional ICU day) were small compared with the average daily total cost ($649 to $839 vs. $1751, in US dollars). In survivors with ICU lengths of stay more than 3 days, the mean direct-variable cost of the last ICU day was $397, while the mean direct-variable cost of the first ward day was $279, for a mean cost difference of $118 (95% CI, $21–$190). Reducing ICU and hospital length of stay by 1 day in all survivors with ICU lengths of stay more than 3 days would result in an immediate cost savings of only 0.2% of all hospital expenditures for these patients.

Conclusions: Marginal variable ICU costs are relatively small compared with average total costs and are only slightly greater than the cost of a ward day.

From the *Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, and the †Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; ‡Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; §Program in Trauma, Emergency, and Critical Care, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; and ¶Department of Clinical Effectiveness and Quality Improvement, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Reprints: Jeremy M. Kahn, MD, MSc, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 723 Blockley Hall, 423 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104. E-mail: jmkahn@mail.med.upenn.edu.

© 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.