From the *Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the †Department of Health Policy and Management, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the ‡Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Maine Medical Center, Portland, Maine; the §Center for the Evaluative Clinical Sciences, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire; the ¶Department of Economics, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire; and the ∥National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Funding was provided by National Institute on Aging (NIA) grant PO1 AG19783. Dr. Barnato was supported by NIA career-development grant K08 AG021921.
The NIA had no role in the in design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript.
Reprints: Amber E. Barnato, MD, MPH, MS, Center for Research on Health Care, University of Pittsburgh, 230 McKee Place, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. E-mail: [email protected].