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Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) in primary lung cancer: Results from a tertiary care centre

Arimbrakkunnan, Mufeed1; Garg, Pawan K.1,; Khera, Pushpinder S.1; Sureka, Binit1; Elhence, Poonam2; Pareek, Puneet3; Chauhan, Nishant Kumar4; Yadav, Taruna1

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doi: 10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_365_21
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Despite improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, lung cancer stands among the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. As per the 2018 Global Cancer Observatory (GLOBOCAN) report, lung cancer affected around 2.1 million people (11.6% of all cancers) worldwide and resulted in 1.8 million deaths (accounting for 18.4% of cancer-related mortality).[1] The high burden of disease and attributable mortality makes lung carcinoma an important public health problem.

Various imaging modalities are being used for the detection, characterisation, staging and follow-up of lung cancer. Chest radiography is the initial investigation wherein lung tumours are seen as nodules or masses with irregular-spiculated margins, or focal areas of consolidation.[2] The drawbacks of radiography include technical errors and failure of detection of smaller lesions in hidden areas such as apices, retrocardiac and perihilar regions.[2] Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is the imaging modality of choice in lung cancer evaluation and staging.[3] Computed tomography (CT) is useful in assessing tumour size and depicts mediastinal invasion, size of the mediastinal lymph nodes, pleural effusion and distant metastasis.[4] However, for parietal pleural involvement, transthoracic ultrasound and MRI give better results.[56]

Perfusion studies assess tumoral microcirculation and angiogenesis properties. Among perfusion imaging techniques, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) have utility for the same. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is an emerging technology assessing tissue vascularity through various perfusion parameters.

The earliest body CTP parameters were reported in 1993 by Miles et al.[7] They quantified the arterial and portal components of hepatic perfusion separately. Initially, CTP evaluation was limited due to short Z-axis coverage, poor reproducibility and cumbersome post-processing. Rapid technological advancements in CT scanners provide longer coverage and helical mode acquisition, covering the entire tumoral volume in a short time span.[8] Commercial software workstations made CTP post-processing and evaluation less cumbersome and consistent.[9]

The significant impact of CTP is in the assessment of acute stroke patients and treatment decisions.[10] The other area where CTP is of value is in oncologic imaging, for tumour diagnosis, staging, prognostication and post-treatment response.[11] The functional parameters obtained by CTP are blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability (denoted as K-trans/FE – flow extraction product) and represent oncological markers of the tumour [Table 1].

Table 1:
Various perfusion parameters, their definition and their physiological surrogate in oncology

Our study aimed to evaluate the CTP parameters in lung cancer and study their correlation with histopathological subtype and other characteristics of the tumour.


After approval from the institutional ethical committee, patients with suspected malignant lung lesions on any imaging modality were enrolled in the study. CTP of the lung lesion was performed using Siemens, SOMATOM Definition Flash Dual Source Dual Energy 128 × 2 slice CT scanner. Lesion localisation and Z-axis coverage (10 cm) determination were done on the topogram. In cases where the lesion was not well defined on topogram, a non-contrast CT was acquired at 80 kV for the same. Further, 45 mL of iodinated contrast agent (Iohexol, 350 mgI/mL) was injected from the right antecubital vein at 5 mL/s, followed by a 30-mL saline bolus chase to minimise streak artifacts. Twenty-seven scans were acquired in helical shuttle mode over 41.7 s after a 2-s delay of contrast injection initiation. Images were acquired at 80 kV and 50–100 mA with automated tube current modulation, rotation time of 0.28 s, 5.0-mm slice thickness initially and later reconstructed at 3.0-mm thickness. CECT of the chest and upper abdomen was done in those patients who had not undergone a staging CT previously.

Post-processing was done on Siemens Advanced MM workstation Syngo Via VB 30 platform. Computerised alignment and motion correction was done automatically by the software. Aorta and its branches were used to place the region of interest for arterial comparison. The display of perfusion maps included soft tissue and mediastinum and excluded bones and calcifications. Colour-coded maps for perfusion parameters were generated using the inbuilt software in the workstation. Source images, perfusion maps and other parameter values were reviewed by two radiologists, MAK and PG with an experience of 3 and 8 years, respectively, and the consensus was agreed upon.

The program estimated tissue perfusion by the deconvolution method. Tabulated data of perfusion parameters (BF, BV, MTT and FE) were obtained using the freehand technique by drawing the volume of interest (VOI) along the lesion. Necrotic areas, vessels, calcifications and atelectatic lung were identified on unprocessed source images and excluded from selecting VOI. TNM staging and stage grouping were done according to the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)-approved staging classification.[12]

All patients underwent ultrasound, CT or bronchoscopy-guided sampling of the lesion as part of the standard protocol. The pathologists analysed and classified the tumours based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) histological classification of lung malignancy, and the report was considered as outcome reference.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Qualitative variables such as age, gender, clinical symptoms, histological subtypes and stage of the lesions were described by frequency and percentages. Perfusion parameters were considered as continuous variables, and mean, median, standard deviation and standard errors were calculated from the data. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied on each perfusion parameter obtained from CTP, different histological subtypes and different TNM stages. A Tukey post-hoc test was used to identify the pairwise average mean differences of perfusion parameters between the subtypes. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed using the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve, and the cut-off to differentiate AC from non-adenomatous lung cancer was estimated. Results with P < 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. Pearson correlation test was used for determining the degree of association between two variables.


From January 2019 to July 2020, 53 consecutive patients with suspected lung malignancy who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited. Two patients with suboptimal images and five patients with benign disease on CT or histopathology were excluded. Thus, a total of 46 patients with CTP evaluation and histopathologically proven lung malignancy constituted the final study population.

Forty-six patients [39 males (84.78%) and seven females (15.22%)] were included in the study with a mean age of 61.4 + 9.57 years (range: 45–84 years). Out of these, 31 (67.39%) had a smoking history. Weight loss and cough constituted the most common clinical symptoms, seen in 42 (91.30%) and 36 (78.26%) patients, respectively. Other symptoms included chest pain, shortness of breath and haemoptysis. Seventeen patients had symptoms such as back pain, seizure and hemiparesis due to secondary metastasis. Twenty-five patients had metastasis (54.34%) belonging to stage IVA and IVB disease. Other patients had locally advanced tumours belonging to stage III. No stage I or II lesions were seen [Table 2].

Table 2:
General characteristics of the study population (Total 46 patients)

Twenty-one patients (45.65%) had AC [Figure 1], constituting the major subtype, followed by SCC in 15 patients (32.60%) [Figure 2]. Ten patients (21.74%) had other variants of lung carcinoma, including poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC), adeno-squamous cell carcinoma (ASC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).

Figure 1:
A 50-year-old male, a chronic smoker, presented with complaints of cough and weight loss for two months. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) in the axial (e) section showing heterogeneously enhancing irregular mass in the subpleural location in the left upper lobe. Colour-coded maps of CTP parameters (a) blood flow (BF), (b) blood volume (BV), (c) mean transit time (MTT), (d) permeability/flow extraction (FE) show predominant red and yellow colours in the lesion, indicating high perfusion of the mass. (BF- 99.6 mL/100 g/min, BV-10.4 mL/100 g, MTT- 6.9 s, FE- 38.9 mL/100 g/min.). Histopathology slides H and E-stained section (f), 10×, shows few viable nests of the tumor with extensive necrosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) shows CK7 positivity (g), proven as adenocarcinoma (AC) lung
Figure 2:
A 62-year-old male, a chronic smoker, presented with complaints of cough, chest pain, shortness of breath and weight loss. CECT in axial section (e) shows heterogeneously enhancing irregular mass with spiculated margins in the right middle lobe (black arrow). Colour-coded maps of CTP parameters (a) blood flow (BF), (b) blood volume (BV), (c) mean transit time (MTT), (d) permeability/flow extraction (FE) show predominant green, blue, and yellowish colours in the lesion, indicating low perfusion of the mass. (BF- 50.1 mL/100 g/min, BV- 3.9 mL/100 g, MTT- 5.3 s, FE- 18.8 mL/100 g/min.). Histopathology slides H and E-stained section (f), 10×, shows nests of tumor cells, carbon pigment near the right-hand side of the image. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for p63 (g) showing intense nuclear positivity, 10×, proven as moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)

Initial evaluation of perfusion parameters in different lung cancer subtypes [AC, SCC and others (including PDC, SCLC and ASC)] by using one-way ANOVA test showed no statistically significant results (P > 0.05) (N = 46). However, on analysing the values, we noted that two lesions (ID14 and ID40) had very low perfusion values (BF <20 mL/100 g/min), causing skewness of the data and negatively affecting the study’s statistical significance [Figure 3]. Inspired by Bevilacqua et al.,[13] we excluded these two cases, which revealed statistically significant differences in BF (f = 5.563, P = 0.007), BV (f = 3.548, P = 0.038) and FE (f = 3.617, P = 0.036) in different lung carcinoma subtypes (N = 44) [Table 3]. MTT did not show any statistically significant differences between the subtypes. Box and whiskers plot graph showed BF as the chief perfusion parameter in differentiating AC from SCC [Figure 4].

Figure 3:
Lesions with very low perfusion (exclusion of which gave statistically significant results): Case 1: (a) Contrast-enhanced CT in axial section shows peripheral heterogeneously enhancing irregular mass in the subpleural location in the left upper lobe. (c) Colour-coded map of CT perfusion parameter blood flow (BF) shows predominant violet colour in the lesion, indicating very low perfusion of the mass (qualitative). Tabulated data of perfusion parameters (quantitative data)- (BF- 17.2 mL/100 g/min, BV- 1.07 mL/100 g, MTT- 4.02 s, FE- 5.44 mL/100 g/min.) Case 2: (b) Contrast-enhanced CT in axial section shows a peripheral relatively less enhancing irregular lesion in the subpleural location in the left upper lobe. (b) Colour-coded map of CTP parameter BF shows predominant violet colour in the lesion, indicating very low perfusion of the mass (qualitative). Tabulated data of perfusion parameters (quantitative data)- (BF- 9.44 mL/100 g/min, BV- 0.63 mL/100 g, MTT- 4.01 s, FE- 3.19 mL/100 g/min.). Both cases are histopathologically proven as adenocarcinoma (AC) of the lung
Table 3:
CT perfusion parameters analysis in different subtypes of lung carcinoma after exclusion of the shallow perfused lesions (n=44) (Obtained by ANOVA test)
Figure 4:
Box and whiskers plot of perfusion parameters among different histological subtypes (HPE) (N = 44). No significant overlap was seen between adenocarcinoma (AC) (1) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (2) in blood flow (BF), making it a useful tool to differentiate between them. Mild overlap is seen in blood volume (BV) and permeability/flow extraction (FE) charts. Significant overlap was noted in mean transit time (MTT)

Correlation of perfusion parameters to IHC markers (TTF-1 and P63) was done in available cases (27 and 23, respectively). P63 positive lesions showed statistically significant lower perfusion (BF, BV and FE) compared to P63 negative lesions (P = 0.013, 0.016 and 0.014, respectively) [Table 4]. No statistically significant differences were obtained for the TTF-1 status of lesions, though the BF, BV and FE were higher in TTF-1-positive lesions.

Table 4:
CT Perfusion parameters and IHC marker analysis - (Results by independent samples t-test)

Different T stages showed statistically significant differences in BF (f = 3.573, P = 0.037), BV (f = 5.145, P = 0.010) and in FE (f = 4.849, P = 0.013) [Table 5]. The Tukey post-hoc test revealed significant pairwise differences between T2 and T4 lesions in BF (mean average difference: 23.59 mL/100 g/min, P = 0.030), in BV (mean average difference: 2.42 mL/100 g, P = 0.007) and in FE (mean average difference: 11.65 mL/100 g/min, P = 0.011). Correlation of the perfusion parameters to metastatic status also showed statistically significant differences in the BF (f = 4.712, P = 0.014) and in BV (f = 4.285, P = 0.020) [Table 6]. Post-hoc Tukey test showed significant differences between non-metastatic (M0) and extrathoracic metastasis (M1b and M1c) lesions in BF (mean average difference: 18.13 mL/100 g/min, P = 0.017) and in BV (mean average difference: 1.44 mL/100 g, P = 0.031). Still, no statistically significant information was seen between TNM stage III and IV groups.

Table 5:
Analysis of CT perfusion parameters in different T stage groups (Results by ANOVA)
Table 6:
Analysis of CT perfusion parameters in non-metastatic and metastatic groups (Results by ANOVA)

CTP parameters showed significant correlations among themselves. BF exhibited strong positive correlation with BV (r = 0.877, P < 0.001) and FE (r = 0.707, P < 0.001). BV exhibited a strong positive correlation with FE (r = 0.855, P < 0.001) as well. A strong positive correlation was seen between MTT and FE (r = 0.515, P < 0.001). In effect, FE showed strong positive correlations with all the other parameters.


The stage of presentation and the histological subtype decide the treatment plan for lung cancer. CTP parameters have been used for differentiating lung malignancy from benign nodules.[14] Pathological features such as microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression have shown a good correlation with the same.[15] The emerging medical drugs for lung carcinoma are directed against tumour angiogenesis, thus halting cancer progression by suppressing the tumoral blood supply.[16] Among medical therapy, platinum-based chemotherapeutic drugs are used for SCC, whereas in non-squamous subtypes, targeted therapies are used depending on the lesion’s mutational analysis. These drugs target vessel neogenesis (such as bevacizumab) or cells with endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) changes (such as erlotinib and gefitinib).[9] Tumours of lower perfusion show poor response to chemotherapy because of decreased drug delivery at the lesion site. Also, they are more hypoxic, thereby resulting in reduced radiosensitivity.[17]

Selection of eligible patients for these drugs and their response assessment requires the evaluation of tumour neovascularisation. Though Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) is the gold standard for response assessment, it is based on size criteria. Instead, CTP assesses the tumour perfusion, revealing the changes even before the size changes.[18] Also, low perfused tumours are likely to have poor drug delivery and tissue hypoxia, thereby leading to inadequate response to chemo-radiation.[9] CTP can identify poorly perfused tumours; this might help in customising the treatment regimen, and subtype identification can also help in treatment planning.

Literature review showed contradictory results of studies that have tried to characterise lung malignancy subtypes with CTP parameters [Table 7]. Bevilacqua et al.[13] and Shi et al.[19] showed statistically significant results on the CTP parameters among different subtypes. Mandeville et al.[20] found a significant difference in permeability between AC and SCC. Few other studies documented higher perfusion of AC than squamous histology without statistical significance,[92122] whereas other studies showed no differences at all.[2324]

Table 7:
Comparison of perfusion parameters in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in various studies

Two cases of AC that showed very low perfusion and skewness of data were located in the periphery and were small in size. Peripherally located tumours probably receive predominant pulmonary circulation supply, which might not initiate angiogenesis yet at a smaller size.[13] Another possibility is the presence of significant necrosis in the lesion, thereby resulting in low perfusion.

Further analysis (N = 44) showed statistically significant differences among the subtype’s perfusion parameters. BF and BV were significantly higher in AC in comparison to SCC. A similar observation was documented by Bevilacqua et al.[13] with a higher mean BF in AC compared to SCC. Only BF between AC and SCC was assessed in their study, limiting them to comment on other perfusion parameters. We analysed the other three parameters as well (BV, MTT and FE) and included PDC, though PDC did not reveal any significant differences in perfusion to AC or SCC.

Our study also demonstrated significantly higher permeability in AC than SCC, which is in concordance with Shi et al.[19] Permeability was the main perfusion parameter in their study that showed statistically significant differences between three subtypes (AC, SCC and SCLC, with P < 0.05); though high BF and BV have been seen in AC than SCC, statistical significance was not present. However, in their study, a statistically significant difference was seen in BF between AC and SCLC. We were limited in analysing SCLC separately as we had only a single case. Mandeville et al.[20] also documented higher permeability in AC. Venkat et al.[9] showed high BF, BV, MTT and permeability in AC compared to SCC without any statistically significant differences.

The histopathological differences between the subtypes might explain the differential perfusion parameters in them. AC has a higher neoangiogenesis with increased microvessel density (MVD) compared to SCC.[21]. CTP is a non-invasive imaging technique, yielding information reflecting the tumour’s angiogenetic property at the microvascular level. This has a high value, especially in the targeted therapy era, as patients with lower perfusion, that is, lower angiogenetic properties, might show inadequate response to the same.[917]

Spira et al.[22] and Sauter et al.[23] showed contradictory results with the present study by using the Patlak perfusion evaluation technique, which showed low BF irrespective of the subtype compared to deconvolution technique studies, including our study. No previous comparison studies of different perfusion evaluation techniques in lung carcinoma have been mentioned in the literature, but studies on pancreatic tumours, renal tumours and colorectal cancer have shown significant differences in the perfusion parameters obtained using different calculation methods (deconvolution technique, Patlak approach and maximum-slope method). However, these results were not directly interchangeable among the various tumours.[2526]

We also obtained a cut-off value of perfusion parameters for diagnosing the AC from others by drawing the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (N = 44) [Figure 5]. BF showed a better curve compared to other parameters with an optimum cut-off value of 58.85 mL/100 g/min, that is, if the BF was above the mentioned value, the lesion was likely to be AC with a sensitivity of 73.7% and a specificity of 72%. No previous studies in the literature have predicted the cut-off value of CTP parameters to characterise lung cancer subtypes. However, this needs to be evaluated in a larger cohort for diagnostic accuracy. The non-invasive method in subtype characterisation might help early treatment initiation, especially in AC, which benefits from antiangiogenic therapies.

Figure 5:
Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve to determine adenocarcinoma (AC) subtype (N = 19) from other subtypes (N = 25) shows that blood flow (blue curve) has a better curve than other parameters, with an area under the curve 0.733 and significance of 0.009

Statistically significant lower perfusion (BF, BV and FE) was observed in P63-positive lesions compared to P63-negative lesions. BF, BV and FE were higher in TTF-1 positive tumours than in TTF-1 negative tumours but did not show statistical significance. These results are in concordance with the above observation as SCC is usually P63 positive and AC is usually TTF-1 positives. Determining the IHC status by a non-invasive method can help in treatment determination. Other IHC markers such as Napsin, CK-7, CK-20 and P40 were shown to have no statistically significant correlation with any of the perfusion parameters.

Significantly low BF, BV and permeability values were seen in T1 and T2 groups compared to T3 and T4 stages [Figure 6]. This information is important because T1, T2 lesions without nodal metastasis can undergo curative resection and may suggest possible perfusion differences among the operable and inoperable lung cancer cases, which needs to be further evaluated with an appropriate cohort. Zhou et al.[27] concluded that low BF in T1b tumours can predict lymph node metastasis.

Figure 6:
Box and whiskers plot of perfusion parameters (in Y-axis) among different T stages (X-axis) (N = 46). No significant overlap was seen between T2 (2) and T3 (3) in blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and permeability/flow extraction (FE) charts making them a useful tool to differentiate between them. Significant overlap was noted in mean transit time. No significant differences were seen between the T3 and T4 (4) stage lesions

Significantly lower BF and BV were observed in extrathoracic metastasis as compared to non-metastatic patients. Ovali et al.[28] also reported low BF in patients with distal metastasis. The present study showed low permeability in the metastatic groups than the non-metastatic group (P = 0.053). Venkat et al.[9] showed no significant difference in the mean permeability values between metastatic and non-metastatic groups. Permeability indicates the leakiness of the tumoral vessels formed by ‘neoangiogenesis’. Thus, just the presence of neoangiogenesis may not be sufficient for metastasis development. Instead, it needs a compound interaction of multiple factors, including angiolymphatic invasion, immunologic mechanism and adhesion molecules, which may not be identifiable by perfusion parameters alone.[9]


In the emerging era of targeted therapy for lung cancer, our study attempts to study the vascular dynamics of the tumours by using non-invasive CTP, thus helping in the differentiation of adenomatous from the non-adenomatous subtype of lung cancer. CTP can also detect adenocarcinoma with low perfusion parameters which will not be benefited from targeted chemotherapy. The CTP can also be useful during a biopsy in case of a large heterogeneous tumour and to assess the chemotherapy response.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.


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Blood flow (BF); blood volume (BV); computed tomography perfusion (CTP); FE – flow extraction product; lung cancer; mean transit time (MTT); permeability

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