To identify characteristics of critically ill adults with sacrococcygeal, unavoidable hospital-acquired pressure injuries (uHAPIs).
Retrospective, matched, case-control design.
Patients admitted to adult intensive care units (ICUs) at an urban academic medical center from January 2014 through July 2016.
Thirty-four patients without uHAPI were matched to 34 patients with sacrococcygeal uHAPI. Time points of interest included admission to the ICU, the week preceding the definitive assessment date, and hospital discharge status. Variables of interest included length of stay, any diagnosis of sepsis, severity of illness, degree of organ dysfunction/failure, supportive therapies in use (eg, mechanical ventilation), and pressure injury risk (Braden Scale score).
All 34 sacrococcygeal pressure injuries were classified as uHAPI using the pressure injury prevention inventory instrument. No statistically significant differences were noted between patients for severity of illness, degree of organ dysfunction/failure, or pressure injury risk at ICU admission. At 1 day prior to the definitive assessment date and at discharge, patients with uHAPI had significantly higher mean Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores (greater organ dysfunction/failure) and lower mean Braden Scale scores (greater pressure injury risk) than patients without uHAPI. Patients with uHAPI had significantly longer lengths of stay, more supportive therapies in use, were more often diagnosed with sepsis, and were more likely to die during hospitalization.
Sacrococcygeal uHAPI development was associated with progressive multiorgan dysfunction/failure, greater use of supportive therapies, sepsis diagnosis, and mortality. Additional research investigating the role of multiorgan dysfunction/failure and sepsis on uHAPI development is warranted.