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Pressure Injury Prevalence and the Rate of Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injury Among Pediatric Patients in Acute Care

Razmus, Ivy; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra

Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing: March/April 2017 - Volume 44 - Issue 2 - p 110–117
doi: 10.1097/WON.0000000000000306
Wound Care

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and rate of hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) in pediatric patients.

DESIGN: Descriptive, secondary analysis of 2012 data on pressure injuries among pediatric patients from the National Database for Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI).

SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The sample included 39,984 patients 1 day to 18 years old from 678 pediatric acute care units (general pediatrics, pediatric critical care, neonatal intensive care, pediatric step-down, and pediatric rehabilitation units) in 271 US hospitals that submitted pressure injury data to the NDNQI for at least 3 quarters during 2012.

RESULTS: The pressure injury prevalence was 1.4% and the prevalence of HAPI was 1.1%. The rate of HAPI among males was 1.06%, and the rate among females was 1.14%. HAPI rates were highest among children ages 9 to 18 years (1.6%) and 5 to 8 years (1.4%) and lowest among patients 1 to 30 days of age (0.72%). By unit type, HAPIs were highest among patients in pediatric critical care units (3.7%) and pediatric rehabilitation units (4.6%) and lowest in general pediatrics units (0.57%). Most of the HAPIs were Stage 1 and Stage 2 (65.6%); 14.3% were deep tissue pressure injuries and 10.1% were unstageable pressure injuries.

CONCLUSION: Acutely ill children develop pressure injuries, including HAPI. Study findings provide data on HAPI from a large sample of hospitalized children and by pediatric unit type for comparison purposes.

Ivy Razmus, PhD, RN, CWOCN, Saint Francis Health System, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Sandra Bergquist-Beringer, PhD, RN, CWCN, University of Kansas Medical Center School of Nursing.

Correspondence: Ivy Razmus, PhD, RN, CWOCN, Wound Ostomy Services, Saint Francis Health System, Tulsa Oklahoma, 74136 (

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

© 2017 by the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society.