This study examined the effectiveness of a universal pressure ulcer prevention bundle (UPUPB) applied to intensive care unit (ICU) patients combined with proactive, semiweekly WOC nurse rounds. The UPUBP was compared to a standard guideline with referral-based WOC nurse involvement measuring adherence to 5 evidence-based prevention interventions and incidence of pressure ulcers.
The study used a quasi-experimental, pre-, and postintervention design in which each phase included different subjects. Descriptive methods assisted in exploring the content of WOC nurse rounds.
One hundred eighty-one pre- and 146 postintervention subjects who met inclusion criteria and were admitted to ICU for more than 24 hours participated in the study. The research setting was 3 ICUs located at North Memorial Medical Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Data collection included admission/discharge skin assessments, chart reviews for 5 evidence-based interventions and patient characteristics, and WOC nurse rounding logs. Study subjects with intact skin on admission identified with an initial skin assessment were enrolled in which prephase subjects received standard care and postphase subjects received the UPUPB. Skin assessments on ICU discharge and chart reviews throughout the stay determined the presence of unit-acquired pressure ulcers and skin care received. Analysis included description of WOC nurse rounds, t-tests for guideline adherence, and multivariate analysis for intervention effect on pressure ulcer incidence. Unit assignment, Braden Scale score, and ICU length of stay were covariates for a multivariate model based on bivariate logistic regression screening.
The incidence of unit-acquired pressure ulcers decreased from 15.5% to 2.1%. WOC nurses logged 204 rounds over 6 months, focusing primarily on early detection of pressure sources. Data analysis revealed significantly increased adherence to heel elevation (t = −3.905, df = 325, P < .001) and repositioning (t = −2.441, df = 325, P < .015). Multivariate logistic regression modeling showed a significant reduction in unit-acquired pressure ulcers (P < .001). The intervention increased the Nagelkerke R-Square value by 0.099 (P < .001) more than 0.297 (P < .001) when including only covariates, for a final model value of 0.396 (P < .001).
The UPUPB with WOC nurse rounds resulted in a statistically significant and clinically relevant reduction in the incidence of pressure ulcers.
Megan Anderson, RN, BSN, CWOCN, CFCN, WOC Nurse, North Memorial Healthcare, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Patricia Finch Guthrie, PhD, CNS, RN, Interprofessional Education, Practice, and Research, St. Catherine University, St Paul, Minnesota.
Wendy Kraft, RN, BSN, CWOCN, WOC Nurse, North Memorial Healthcare, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Patty Reicks, RN, BSN, Pediatric Trauma and Trauma Research, North Memorial Healthcare, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Carol Skay, PhD, Psychometrics and Statistics, Statistics, Research, Evaluation, Design, Implementation, Problem Solving Wayzata, Minnesota.
Alan L. Beal, MD, North Memorial Healthcare, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Correspondence: Megan Anderson, RN, BSN, CWOCN, CFCN, North Memorial WOC Nursing Service, 3300 Oakdale Ave N, Robbinsdale, MN 55422 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
The authors disclose no conflicts of interest.