The objectives of this study were to (1) measure the prevalence of incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) and pressure ulcers (PUs) on admission to a long-term acute care (LTAC) facility; (2) identify factors associated with IAD and PU on admission to an LTAC facility; and (3) measure the incidence of incontinence and PUs in LTAC patients.
This was a longitudinal, repeated-measures study; data were collected over a 12-week period.
One hundred seventy-one patients, with a median age of 55 years. Fifty-four women and 117 men were evaluated. The sample comprises all patients admitted to the 4 LTAC units at the Drake Center in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Patients were examined using the “Hospital Survey on Incontinence and Perineal Skin Injury” instrument within 24 hours of admission and they were reevaluated weekly using the same tool until discharge. All data were collected by the Drake Center Advanced Wound Team. Prevalence was defined as the frequency of PUs or IAD identified at admission. Incidence was calculated using the formula: the number of new IAD cases/the number of patients without IAD on admission. Pressure ulcer incidence was measured using 2 formulas: (1) the number of patients with new PUs/the number of all patients who did not have PU on admission and (2) the number of patients with new PUs or a PU in a new location/the number of all patients.
Thirty-nine out of 171 patients had IAD on admission, yielding a prevalence of 22.8%. Sixty of 171 patients had a PU on admission, yielding a prevalence of 35.1%. Ten of 132 patients who did not have IAD at admission developed IAD during follow-ups, yielding a 7.6% incidence. Two PU incidence rates were measured; those patients without PUs on admission 3.6% (4/111) and all patients 8.2% (14/171).
The LTAC admission PU prevalence rate in this study was greater than that reported previously in acute or long-term care settings. The LTAC PU incidence rate was less than those reported for both acute and long-term care settings. The LTAC IAD admission prevalence rate closely reflected the acute care rate but was substantially higher than the long-term care rate.
Mary Arnold Long, MSN, RN, CRRN, CWOCN-AP, ACNS-BC, Clinical Nurse Specialist, Roper St Francis Health Care, Charleston, South Carolina.
Lu Ann Reed, MSN, RN, CRRN, RNC, WCC, Clinical Manager Advanced Wound Care Program, Drake Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Kari Dunning, PhD, PT, Assistant Professor, Department of Rehabilitation Services, University of Cincinnati, and Drake Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Jun Ying, PhD, Biostatician and Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio.
Correspondence: Mary Arnold Long, MSN, RN, CRRN, CWOCN-AP, ACNS-BC, Roper St Francis Health Care, 2095 Henry Tecklenburg Dr, Charleston, SC 29401 (email@example.com)
The authors declare no conflict of interest.