From the Safar Center for Resuscitation Research (A.N., P.S., X.W., M.K., S.A.T., P.K.) and the Departments of Anesthesiology (A.N., P.S., X.W., M.K.), Surgery (S.A.T.), Pediatrics (P.K.), and Critical Care Medicine (P.K., S.A.T.), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Submitted for publication July 28, 2003.
Accepted for publication January 21, 2004.
Supported by U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command/Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center grant DAMD 17-01-2-0038 and the Laerdal Foundation for Acute Medicine.
Presented at the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ Annual Meeting, October 16, 2002, Orlando, Florida.
Address for reprints: Samuel A. Tisherman, MD, FACS, FCCM, Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, University of Pittsburgh, 3434 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260; email: [email protected].