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When observational studies are as helpful as randomized trials

Examples from orthopedic trauma

Beks, Reinier B. MD, PhD; Bhashyam, Abhiram R. MD, MPP; Houwert, Roderick Marijn MD, PhD; van der Velde, Detlef MD, PhD; van Heijl, Mark MD, PhD; Smeeing, Diederik P.J. MD, PhD; Hietbrink, Falco MD, PhD; Leenen, Luke P.H. MD, PhD; Groenwold, Rolf H.H. MD, PhD

Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery: September 2019 - Volume 87 - Issue 3 - p 730–732
doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000002347

From the Department of Surgery (R.B.B., R.M.H., F.H., L.P.H.L.), University Medical Center Utrecht; Department of Surgery (R.B.B., M.V.H.), Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Harvard Orthopaedic Trauma Initiative, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (A.R.B.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Surgery (D.V.D.V.), St Antonius Ziekenhuis, Nieuwegein; Department of Surgery (D.P.J.S.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen; and Department of Clinical Epidemiology (R.H.H.G.), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Submitted: November 10, 2018, Revised: February 27, 2019, Accepted: March 29, 2019, Published online: April 30, 2019.

Address for reprints: Reinier B. Beks, MD, PhD, Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht; or Department of Surgery, Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht, the Netherlands; email:

Online date: April 30, 2019

© 2019 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.