Impaired intestinal microvascular perfusion following resuscitated hemorrhagic shock (HS) leads to ischemia-reperfusion injury, microvascular dysfunction, and intestinal epithelial injury, which contribute to the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in some trauma patients. Restoration of central hemodynamics with traditional methods alone often fails to fully restore microvascular perfusion and does not protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that resuscitation (RES) with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) alone or combined with direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) with 2.5% Delflex solution might improve blood flow and decrease intestinal injury compared with conventional RES or RES with DPR alone.
Sprague-Dawley rats underwent HS (40% mean arterial pressure) for 60 minutes and were randomly assigned to a RES group (n = 8): sham, HS–crystalloid resuscitation (CR) (shed blood + two volumes CR), HS-CR-DPR (intraperitoneal 2.5% peritoneal dialysis fluid), HS-FFP (shed blood + two volumes FFP), and HS-DPR-FFP (intraperitoneal dialysis fluid + two volumes FFP). Laser Doppler flowmeter evaluation of the ileum, serum samples for fatty acid binding protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were used to assess intestinal injury and blood flow. p Values of <0.05 were considered significant.
Following HS, the addition of DPR to either RES modality improved intestinal blood flow. Four hours after resuscitated HS, FABP-2 (intestinal) and FABP-6 (ileal) were elevated in the CR group but reduced in the FFP and DPR groups. The H&E staining demonstrated disrupted intestinal villi in the FFP and CR groups, most significantly in the CR group. Combination therapy with FFP and DPR demonstrated negligible cellular injury in H&E graded samples and a significant reduction in fatty acid binding protein levels.
Hemorrhagic shock leads to ischemic-reperfusion injury of the intestine, and both FFP and DPR alone attenuated intestinal damage; combination FFP-DPR therapy alleviated most signs of organ injury. Resuscitation with FFP-DPR to restore intestinal blood flow following shock could be an essential method of reducing morbidity and mortality after trauma.