Identification of occult hypovolemia in trauma patients is difficult. We hypothesized that in acute trauma patients, the response of ultrasound-measured minimum inferior vena cava diameter (IVCDMIN), IVC Collapsibility Index (IVCCI), minimum internal jugular diameter (IJVDMIN) or IJV Collapsibility Index (IJVCI) after up to 1 hour of fluid resuscitation would predict 24-hour resuscitation intravenous fluid requirements (24FR).
An NTI-funded, American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multi-Institutional Trials Committee prospective, cohort trial was conducted at four Level I Trauma Centers. Major trauma patients were screened for an IVCD of 12 mm or less or IVCCI of 50% or less on initial focused assessment sonographic evaluations for trauma. A second IVCD was obtained 40 minutes to 60 minutes later, after standard-of-care fluid resuscitation. Patients whose second measured IVCD was less than 10 mm were deemed nonrepleted (NONREPLETED), those 10 mm or greater were repleted (REPLETED). Prehospital and initial resuscitation fluids and 24FR were recorded. Demographics, Injury Severity Score, arterial blood gasses, length of stay, interventions, and complications were recorded. Means were compared by ANOVA and categorical variables were compared via χ2. Receiver operating characteristic curves analysis was used to compare the measures as 24FR predictors.
There were 4,798 patients screened, 196 were identified with admission IVCD of 12 mm or IVCCI of 50% or less, 144 were enrolled. There were 86 REPLETED and 58 NONREPLETED. Demographics, initial hemodynamics, or laboratory measures were not significantly different. NONREPLETED had smaller IVCD (6.0 ± 3.7 mm vs. 14.2 ± 4.3 mm, p < 0.001) and higher IVCCI (41.7% ± 30.0% vs. 13.2% ± 12.7%, p < 0.001) but no significant difference in IJVD or IJVCCI. REPLETED had greater 24FR than NONREPLETED (2503 ± 1751 mL vs. 1,243 ± 1,130 mL, p = 0.003). Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicates IVCDMIN predicted 24FR (area under the curve [AUC], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64–0.84; p < 0.001) as did IVCCI (AUC, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65–0.85; p < 0.001) but not IJVDMIN (AUC, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24–0.60; p = 0.747) or IJVCI (AUC, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.42–0.67; p = 0.591).
Ultrasound assessed IVCDMIN and IVCCI response initial resuscitation predicts 24-hour fluid resuscitation requirements.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
Diagnostic tests or criteria, level II.