Coagulopathy is a common complication after severe trauma. The efficacy of 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4-PCC) as an adjunct to fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in reversal of coagulopathy of trauma (COT) has not been studied. The aim of our study is to compare 4-PCC + FFP versus FFP alone for the treatment of COT.
We reviewed all trauma patients older than 18 years who received PCC + FFP or FFP alone at our Level I trauma center from 2015 to 2016. We excluded patients on preinjury oral anticoagulants. Patients were divided into two groups (4-PCC + FFP: FFP alone) and were matched in a 1:2 ratio using propensity score matching for demographics, vital and injury parameters, and initial international normalized ratio (INR). COT was defined as admission INR > 1.5. Corrected INR was defined as an INR of 1.5 or less. Outcome measures were time to correction of INR, packed red blood cells units transfused, thromboembolic complications, and mortality.
We analyzed 516 trauma patients, of which 120 patients (4-PCC + FFP: 40, FFP: 80) were matched. Mean age was 58 ± 20 years; 60% were male, median Injury Severity Score was 29 (14–38). Mechanism of injury was blunt in 87% patients. 4-PCC + FFP was associated with an accelerated correction of INR (373 minutes vs. 955 minutes; p = 0.001), a decrease in packed red blood cells units (7 units vs. 9 units; p = 0.04), and FFP units (5 units vs. 7 units; p = 0.03) transfused compared to FFP alone. 4-PCC + FFP was associated with a lower mortality (25% vs. 33% p = 0.04) compared with FFP alone; however, there was no difference in the thromboembolic complications (2.5% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.5) between the two groups. Administration of PCC + FFP led to an earlier correction of the INR compared with FFP alone.
Results of our study demonstrated that the use of 4-PCC in conjunction with FFP is associated with the rapid reversal of INR and reduction in transfusion requirements as compared with FFP alone. Four-factor PCC as a component therapy along with FFP is superior to FFP alone for the reversal of COT.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
Therapeutic studies, level IV.