From the Department of Surgery (A.J.D., R.M.R., S.-A.E.F., L.P.N.), UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California; Department of General Surgery (A.J.D., R.M.R., L.P.N.), David Grant Medical Center, Travis Air Force Base, California; Division of Traumatology, Surgical Critical Care and Emergency Surgery (J.W.C.), Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; The Norman M. Rich Department of Surgery (J.W.C., T.E.R., L.P.N.), the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland; Department of Emergency Medicine (A.M.J.), UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California; and Heart, Lung and Vascular Center (T.K.W.), David Grant Medical Center, Travis Air Force Base, California.
Submitted: December 1, 2016, Revised: February 9, 2017, Accepted: February 15, 2017, Published online: April 18, 2017.
The animals involved in this study were procured, maintained, and used in accordance with the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1966, as amended, and NIH 80-23, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, National Research Council.
The views expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US Government, the Department of Defense, the Department of the Air Force, or the University of California Davis. The work reported herein was performed under United States Air Force Surgeon General–approved Clinical Investigation No. FDG20160008A.
A version of this manuscript was presented as a poster presentation at the Eastern Association for Surgery of Trauma Annual Scientific Assembly, January 10–14, 2017 at the Diplomat Resort in Orlando, FL. This work has not been published elsewhere.
Address for reprints: Timothy K. Williams, MD, Heart, Lung and Vascular Center, David Grant USAF Medical Center, 101 Bodin Circle, Travis Air Force Base, CA 94535; email: [email protected].