The brief, easily administered screen, the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen (ITSS), was created to identify trauma survivors at risk for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression.
An item pool of PTSD risk factors was created and given, along with a previously created screen, to patients admitted to two Level 1 trauma centers. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5, the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Revised were given during a 1-month follow-up. A total of 139 participants were included (n = 139; μ age = 41.06; 30.9% female; 47.5% White/Caucasian; 39.6% Black/African American; 10.1% Latino/Hispanic; 1.4% American Indian; and 1.4% other). Stepwise bivariate logistic regression was used to determine items most strongly associated with PTSD and depression diagnosis 1 month after injury.
Forty participants met criteria for a PTSD diagnosis and 28 for depression at follow-up (22 comorbid). ROC curve analysis was used to determine sensitivity (PTSD = 75.00, Depression = 75.00), specificity (PTSD = 93.94, Depression = 95.5), NPV (PTSD = 90.3, Depression = 80.8), and PPV (PTSD = 83.3, Depression = 93.8) of the final nine-item measure.
This study provides evidence for the utility of a predictive screen, the ITSS, to predict which injured trauma survivors admitted to the hospital are at the most risk for developing symptoms of PTSD and depression 1 month after injury. The ITSS is a short, easily administered tool that can aid in reducing the untreated cases of PTSD and depression.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
Prognostic study, level III.