From the Shock and Trauma Center (N.S., H.M., T.Y., Y.H., K.H., T.M., K.M., H.I.), Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital, Inzai; Emergency and Critical Care Medicine (H.Y.), Nippon Medical School, Tokyo; and Department of Clinical Trial and Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine (Y.W.), University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.
Submitted: August 31, 2014, Revised: February 9, 2015, Accepted: February 12, 2015.
This study was presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma and Clinical Congress of Acute Care Surgery, September 9–13, 2014, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Address for reprints: Nobuyuki Saito, MD, Shock and Trauma Center, Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital, 1715 Kamagari, Inzai 270–1694, Japan; email: [email protected].