From the Department of Anesthesiology (J.L.P., G.F.), and Shock, Trauma, and Anesthesiology Research Center (STAR) (J.L.P., G.F.), School of Medicine, and Department of Mechanical Engineering (W.L.F., U.H.L.), School of Engineering, and the Center of Energetics Concepts Development (W.L.F., U.H.L.), University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland.
Submitted: December 13, 2013, Revised: March 6, 2014, Accepted: March 17, 2014.
This work was presented at the 2013 Military Health System Research Symposium, August 12–15, 2013, in Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
Address for reprints: Gary Fiskum, PhD, Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, 685 W Baltimore St, 534 MSTF, Baltimore, MD; email: [email protected].