The optimal fluid strategy for the early treatment of trauma patients remains highly debated. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of an initial bolus of resuscitative fluids used in military and civilian settings on the physiologic response to uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock
in a prospective, randomized, blinded animal study.
Fifty anesthetized swine underwent central venous and arterial catheterization followed by celiotomy. Grade V liver injury was performed, followed by 30 minutes of uncontrolled hemorrhage
. Then, liver packing was completed, and fluid resuscitation
was initiated over 12 minutes with 2 L normal saline (NS), 2 L Lactated Ringer's (LR), 250 mL 7.5% hypertonic saline with 3% Dextran (HTS), 500 mL Hextend (HEX), or no fluid (NF). Animals were monitored for 2 hours postinjury. Blood loss after initial hemorrhage
, mean arterial pressure (MAP), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2
), hematocrit, pH, base excess, and lactate were measured at baseline, 1 hour, and 2 hours.
NF group had less post-treatment blood loss compared with other groups. MAP and StO2
for HEX, HTS, and LR at 1 hour and 2 hours were similar and higher than NF. MAP and StO2
did not differ between NS and NF, but NS resulted in decreased pH and base excess.
Withholding resuscitative fluid results in the least amount of posttreatment blood loss. In clinically used volumes, HEX and HTS are equivalent to LR with regard to physiologic outcomes and superior to NF. NS did not provide a measurable improvement in outcome compared with NF and resulted in increased acidosis.