From the Department of Surgery (S.R.D., T.A.O., W.R.G., J.J., E.E.C., D.C.C.), Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, District of Columbia; Department of Surgery (D.C.C.), University of California San Diego, San Diego, California; Department of Surgery (S.R.D., A.H.H., D.C.C.), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; and Department of Surgery (S.O.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Submitted for publication December 13, 2009.
Accepted for publication October 22, 2010.
Presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, January 19–23, 2010, Phoenix, Arizona; Raymond H. Alexander, MD, Resident Paper Competition of the EAST Foundation Entrant, 2010.
Address for reprints: David C. Chang, MPH, MBA, PhD, 600 North Wolfe Street, Blalock 616, Baltimore, MD 21287; email: [email protected].