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Posttrauma Thromboembolism Prophylaxis

Greenfield, Lazar J. MD; Proctor, Mary C. MS; Rodriguez, Jorge L. MD; Luchette, Fred A. MD; Cipolle, Mark D. MD, PhD; Cho, James BA

The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care: January 1997 - Volume 42 - Issue 1 - p 100-103

Purpose  The need to study methods of thromboembolism prophylaxis in high-risk trauma patients is well established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a proposed study design, including current methods of prophylaxis, performance of a risk assessment profile scale, and the use of serial color-flow duplex studies in detecting deep venous thrombosis (DVT).

Methods  Patients were enrolled into the study, stratified as to their ability to receive anticoagulation and randomized to low-dose unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin, pneumatic compression devices, or foot pumps with or without vena caval filters. Serial ultrasound scans were performed at designated intervals for 4 weeks. Pulmonary angiograms were obtained for clinical signs or symptoms of pulmonary embolism.

Results  Fifty-three patients, 32 male and 21 female patients with a mean age of 44 years, completed the study. The incidence of DVT was 43% (23 of 53 patients) and significantly higher in older patients. There were no pulmonary embolisms. Color-flow duplex proved to be a sensitive method for detecting both proximal and distal thrombi. The risk assessment profile for thromboembolism (RAPT) scale identified a group of patients with a high incidence of DVT. However, the occurrence of DVT was not correlated with the magnitude of the RAPT score.

Conclusion  The ability to identify a population with a high incidence of thromboembolism by using the RAPT score to detect asymptomatic DVT, and the suggested advantage of low molecular weight heparin, all support the need for an appropriately powered randomized clinical trial.

From the Department of Surgery (L.J.G., M.C.P., J.C.), University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, the Department of Surgery (F.A.L.), University of Cincinnati Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, and the Department of Surgery (M.D.C.), Lehigh Valley Hospital, Allentown, Pennsylvania.

Supported in part by Boston Scientific Corporation, Toshiba Corporation, Kendall Healthcare Products Company, and Rhone-Poulenc Rorer.

Presented at the 8th Annual Meeting of the American Venous Forum, February 22-24, 1996, San Diego, California.

Address for reprints: Lazar J. Greenfield MD, Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Hospitals, 2101 Taubman Center/Box 0346, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.

© Williams & Wilkins 1997. All Rights Reserved.