To compare outcomes in blunt trauma by using Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) models derived from the Major Trauma Outcome Study (MTOS) and the Ontario Trauma Registry (OTR) as well as to evaluate the role of the Revised Trauma Score within the TRISS model.
Consecutive blunt trauma cases from 11 Level I trauma centers over a 4-year period were identified from the OTR. Coefficients of the Revised Trauma Score were modified using the Ontario data and this score was tested by using the Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness of Fit Test. Two Ontario-specific TRISS models were developed with revised coefficients. The first used the standard Revised Trauma Score and the second used the Revised Trauma Score with regenerated coefficients. The accuracy of mortality predictions for all models were compared by using a Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness of Fit procedure. Additionally, each TRISS models performance characteristics and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate their discriminative capabilities.
A total of 5,436 cases were incorporated in the analysis. Patients with all component TRISS variables had a significantly lower mortality compared to all blunt trauma patients (7.0% vs. 15.5%, p < 0.01). Use of the Revised Trauma Score led to the exclusion of 40% of cases because of absent data necessary to compute the score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness of Fit statistic for the Revised Trauma Score was 79.45 (p = 0.0001). The Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness of Fit Statistic ranged from 11.42, p = 0.175 and 13.1, p = 0.125 for the Ontario TRISS models compared to 25.62, p < 0.005 for the MTOS TRISS model. Sensitivity of all three TRISS models ranged from 98% to 99% with specificty ranging from 24% to 35%. ROC curves were identical for all three TRISS models.
TRISS demonstrated satisfactory performance in a Canadian blunt trauma population. Although revision of coefficients led to a better fit on the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic, ROC curves demontrated virtually identical performance of the MTOS and Ontario-based TRISS models. The poor performance of the Revised Trauma Score and the observation that its use led to the exclusion of 40% of cases with a higher mortality raises concerns regarding its use in the TRISS model.