Research MethodologyGuidelines on How to Perform a Systematic Review in Spine SurgeryKoslosky, Ezekial BA*; Gendelberg, David MD†; Zhu, Jimmy MD‡Author Information *Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington Medical School †Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington ‡Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA This work was performed at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Ezekial Koslosky, BA, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, WA (e-mail: [email protected]). Clinical Spine Surgery: April 2021 - Volume 34 - Issue 3 - p 107-108 doi: 10.1097/BSD.0000000000001088 Buy Metrics Abstract Primary literature can be contradictory due to a multitude of factors, including poorly designed studies, error types, and confounding factors, and thus literature reviews can be difficult and time-consuming. Systematic reviews are designed to provide unbiased and comprehensive comparisons of relevant primary studies. This method is considered superior to traditional literature reviews due to the unbiased consideration of a broad number of sources rather than a limited literature review. This article will provide guidance for performing a systematic review, including framing a question, selecting studies with inclusion and exclusion criteria, evaluating primary literature, and explaining analysis types. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.