This was a retrospective study.
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the different change patterns in reciprocal sagittal alignment values after selective thoracic fusion (STF) in Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) according to preoperative thoracic kyphosis (TK).
Summary of Background Data:
Several studies have found significant increase in TK after STF, while other studies have reported decrease in TK postoperatively. Similar inconclusive results on changes in lumbar lordosis (LL) have been reported, showing LL increase, decrease, or no change.
Materials and Methods:
Ninety-three patients presenting with Lenke type 1 AIS treated by posterior STF with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included in this study. Using whole spine radiographs, sagittal parameters including TK, LL, and upper lumbar lordosis (ULL) were compared preoperatively and at the last follow-up between a hypokyphosis group (preoperative TK<20 degrees) and a normokyphosis group (preoperative TK≥20 degrees). Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using scoliosis research society health-related quality of life-30 (SRS-30) and short from health survey-36 questionnaire at the last visit.
The mean follow-up duration was 74.9 months. In the hypokyphosis group (35 patients), TK, LL, and ULL statistically significantly increased after surgery by mean 7.7, 5.1, and 3.7 degrees (P<0.001, <0.001, and 0.001). In the normokyphosis group (58 patients), these parameters did not show significant changes after STF. Final TK was significantly lower in hypokyphosis group than that in the normokyphosis group (21.2 vs. 30.9 degrees, P<0.001) while final LL did not differ between 2 groups (52.4 vs. 54.6 degrees, P=0.194). HRQOL did not differ significantly between the 2 groups.
After STF in Lenke 1 AIS, TK, and LL statistically significantly increased through an increase in the mean ULL in the hypokyphosis group while those mean values did not change in the normokyphosis group. Despite the final mean value of the TK in the hypokyphosis group increasing by 7.7 degrees, it was statistically significantly lower than the final mean TK value in the normokyphosis group which did not increase after STF surgery by posterior approach. However, HRQOL showed no significant difference between the 2 groups.