Research MethodologyStatistics for the Practicing Spine Surgeon Fundamental MeasurementsGoyal, Dhruv K.C. MD; Stolz, Katharine BS; Lee, Thomas J. MS; Thomas, Alexander BS; Grandhi, Nikhil BS; Galetta, Matthew S. BA; Divi, Srikanth N. MD; Fang, Taolin MD; Schroeder, Gregory D. MD; Kepler, Christopher K. MD, MBA; Vaccaro, Alexander R. MD, PhD, MBAAuthor Information Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rothman Orthopaedic Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA Dr Schroeder has received funds to travel from AO Spine and Medtronic. Dr Vaccaro has consulted or has done independent contracting for DePuy, Medtronic, Stryker Spine, Globus, Stout Medical, Gerson Lehrman Group, Guidepoint Global, Medacorp, Innovative Surgical Design, Orthobullets, Ellipse, and Vertex. He has also served on the scientific advisory board/board of directors/committees for Flagship Surgical, AO Spine, Innovative Surgical Design, and Association of Collaborative Spine Research. Dr Vaccaro has received royalty payments from Medtronic, Stryker Spine, Globus, Aesculap, Thieme, Jaypee, Elsevier, and Taylor Francis/Hodder and Stoughton. He has stock/stock option ownership interests in Replication Medica, Globus, Paradigm Spine, Stout Medical, Progressive Spinal Technologies, Advanced Spinal Intellectual Properties, Spine Medica, Computational Biodynamics, Spinology, In Vivo, Flagship Surgical, Cytonics, Bonovo Orthopaedics, Electrocore, Gamma Spine, Location Based Intelligence, FlowPharma, R.S.I., Rothman Institute and Related Properties, Innovative Surgical Design, and Avaz Surgical. He has also served as deputy editor/editor of Spine. In addition, Dr Vaccaro has also provided expert testimony. The remaining authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Dhruv K.C. Goyal, BA, Rothman Orthopaedic Institute, 925 Chestnut Street, 5th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Clinical Spine Surgery: May 2020 - Volume 33 - Issue 4 - p 156-159 doi: 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000979 Buy Metrics Abstract There are vast numbers of evidenced-based clinical trials produced each year, making it increasingly difficult to stay up to date with new treatments and protocols designed to provide the most optimal patient care. A physician’s ability to combine existing knowledge with new data is limited by a basic understanding of the background statistics used in these studies. Our goal is to not only define the basic statistics commonly used in clinical trials but to also ensure that practitioners are able to have a working understanding of these statistical measurements to effectively make the most informed and efficacious decisions regarding patient management. On the basis of the recent growth of empirical spine literature, it is becoming more important for spine surgeons to have the basic statistical background necessary to efficiently interpret new data, which may affect clinical decision making regarding patient care. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.