RESEARCH METHODOLOGYHow to Write Effective Discussion and Conclusion SectionsMakar, Gabriel BS*; Foltz, Carol PhD†; Lendner, Mayan BS†; Vaccaro, Alexander R. MD, PhD, MBA†Author Information *Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Camden, NJ †Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, PA Dr Vaccaro has consulted or has done independent contracting for DePuy, Medtronic, Stryker Spine, Globus, Stout Medical, Gerson Lehrman Group, Guidepoint Global, Medacorp, Innovative Surgical Design, Orthobullets, Ellipse, and Vertex. He has also served on the scientific advisory board/board of directors/committees for Flagship Surgical, AO Spine, Innovative Surgical Design, and Association of Collaborative Spine Research. Dr Vaccaro has received royalty payments from Medtronic, Stryker Spine, Globus, Aesculap, Thieme, Jaypee, Elsevier, and Taylor Francis/Hodder and Stoughton. He has stock/stock option ownership interests in Replication Medica, Globus, Paradigm Spine, Stout Medical, Progressive Spinal Technologies, Advanced Spinal Intellectual Properties, Spine Medica, Computational Biodynamics, Spinology, In Vivo, Flagship Surgical, Cytonics, Bonovo Orthopaedics, Electrocore, Gamma Spine, Location Based Intelligence, FlowPharma, R.S.I., Rothman Institute and Related Properties, Innovative Surgical Design, and Avaz Surgical. He has also served as deputy editor/editor of Spine. In addition, Dr Vaccaro has also provided expert testimony. The remaining authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Mayan Lendner, BS, Rothman Institute Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (e-mail: [email protected]). Clinical Spine Surgery: October 2018 - Volume 31 - Issue 8 - p 345-346 doi: 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000687 Buy Metrics Abstract With the exponential increase in research in the field of spine surgery, publishing peer-reviewed articles has become both more desirable and competitive in the past decade. Constructing an impactful manuscript has many important factors, one of which is a well-written Discussion section. A research study can ask a pressing question, have a meticulous methodology and report compelling results; however, without a thoughtful and well-informed analysis of the meaning of the study’s findings and their potential influence on the field, the paper will be uninteresting and weak. Thus, formulating an effective Discussion section is crucial to improving the likelihood of the study’s publication and its impact. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.