This was a retrospective cohort study.
The primary goal was to evaluate risk factors related to increased blood loss in adolescent idiopathic surgery (AIS) surgery with the secondary goal being to evaluate the financial implications around the use of intraoperative cell salvage (ICS) and the routine preallocation of autogenous blood products.
Summary of Background Data:
Deformity correction for AIS is a complex procedure and can be associated with significant blood loss.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted on consecutive patients between the ages of 10 and 18 years who underwent posterior spinal fusion of 7–12 levels over a 3-year period between January 2013 and December 2015. Demographic information and surgical characteristics were recorded. All patients had a preoperative type and cross of 2 units and ICS was used in all cases. Charges for preoperative type and cross and ICS were also measured. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify pertinent variables affecting blood loss.
In total, 134 patients met inclusion criteria. ICS was used in all cases. In total, 51 patients were transfused cell saver blood intraoperatively/postoperatively at the discretion of the surgeon. On average 133 mL were returned to the patient. No complications related to ICS were observed. Multivariable analysis identified male sex, lower body mass index and higher surgical time to be associated with increased blood loss (P<0.05). All 134 patients had a preoperative type and cross, with an average charge to patient of $311. Patients were charged $1037 for intraoperative use of ICS and $242 for centrifugation. Patients who had allogeneic transfusion were charged $1047.
Several blood conservation strategies, including use of ICS, exist to minimize the consequences of blood loss. Routine use of preoperative type and cross may be avoided except in cases where significant blood loss is anticipated—that is adolescent male individuals, those with a lower body mass index and in whom a longer surgical time is anticipated.