Systematic review with meta-analysis.
To compare the perioperative and long-term postoperative effectiveness of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) for lumbar arthrodesis in skeletally mature adults with degenerative disk disease (DDD) to that of the current golden standard treatment, iliac crest autologous bone graft (ICBG).
Summary of Background Data:
The treatment efficacy of lumbar arthrodesis in DDD is a complex clinical and economic issue for patients and health care providers.
Comprehensive electronic literature search was performed using following databases: Ovid MEDLINE; Embase; Cochrane Library; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; Methodology Register; Technology Assessment Database; and Economic Evaluation Database. The full year ranges of each database until May of 2012 were included.
Eight randomized controlled clinical trials of 383 citations were selected. The included studies involved 1138 participants. The pooled 2-year postoperative clinical outcomes were equivalent in BMP and ICBG groups, and exceeded minimum clinically important differences for Oswestry Disability Index, SF-36 (physical scale), and numeric rating scale (back pain). ICBG was associated with increased pain and complications at the donor site (P<0.01). The pooled average operative time was 21 minutes less in BMP versus ICBG (P<0.001). The pooled rate of additional surgical treatment was 2 times less in the BMP than in the ICBG groups (P=0.006). The pooled risk of nonunion at 24-month follow-up was 2 times less in the BMP than in the ICBG groups (P=0.037), however, this effect was likely biased.
BMP, in particular rhBMP-2, is a good alternative to autogenous bone graft, especially in cases when harvesting of autologous bone is contraindicated or undesirable, operation time is limited, and there are no contraindications for BMP use.
However, the current study did not reveal evidence robust enough to develop strong medical recommendations concerning BMP use for lumbar arthrodesis in degenerative disk disease.