Literature review and meta-analysis.
To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for new osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (VCF) after vertebroplasty.
Summary of Background Data:
New osteoporotic VCF is one of the serious complications of vertebroplasty, and it is important to investigate the risk factors for such VCFs. The risk factors for new VCFs reported so far remain controversial because of limited data and lack of uniform measurements and evaluation.
We searched the electronic database of PubMed for case-control studies about the risk of new osteoporotic VCFs after vertebroplasty.
A total of 116 studies were identified, of which 16 studies including 559 cases and 1736 controls met the inclusion criteria. The significant risk factors for new VCFs were low bone mineral density [BMD; standardized mean difference (SMD), −0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI), −1.26 to −0.20], low body mass index (BMI; SMD, −0.30; 95% CI, −0.51 to −0.10), and intradiscal cement leakage [odds ratio (OR), 2.13; 95% CI, 1.40–2.36]. The significant risk factors for new VCFs adjacent to the treated VCF were low BMD (SMD, −0.43; 95% CI, −0.76 to −0.09), low BMI (SMD, −0.52; 95% CI, −0.81 to −0.22), and intradiscal cement leakage (OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.63–4.17). Low BMD, low BMI, intradiscal cement leakage, cement volume, surgical approach, age, sex, and thoracolumbar junction fracture were all not significant risk factors for new VCFs away from the original VCF. Only one study reported dynamic characteristics as risk factors for new VCFs.
The results of this meta-analysis strongly suggested that patients with low BMD, low BMI, and intradiscal cement leakage were at high risk for new VCFs after vertebroplasty, and risk-reduction options should be considered for such patients.