Article: PDF OnlyHadjipavlou Alexander G.; Nicodemus, Clarence L.; Al-Hamdan, Farouq A.; Simmons, James W.; Pope, Malcolm H.Journal of Spinal Disorders: February 1997 - p 12-19 Buy Abstract Summary Thirty single-pedicle and triangulated pedicle screws were subjected to pull-out tests until complete dislodgment was achieved. Peak load, displacement curves, angle of triangulation, and equivalent mineral density were recorded. Dual pedicle screw triangulation produced a 154.4% increase in peak pull-out strength compared with that of the single pedicle screw. Salvage triangulation (replacing failed screws with a triangulation construct) produced a 127.4% increase in peak strength over that of the single screw. Positive correlation was found between individual screw peak strength, bone mineral density, and displacement at peak load. Primary and salvage triangulation produced higher resistance to pull-out than a single pedicle screw, which reflects the potential, beneficial effect of using this technique. Triangulation, therefore, can be used as a primary (prophylactic) technique to enhance pedicular screw pull-out during forceful vertebral manipulation. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.