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Video Abstract: Socioeconomic factors account for variability in language skills in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders

Video Author: Lindsay Olson
Published on: 10.06.2020
Associated with: Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. Publish Ahead of Print():, January 13, 2021

Video DescriptionNote: This description is indexed by the journal search engine, please be as descriptive as possible; can accept HTML if sponsor wants to place a logo or image file Socioeconomic factors account for variability in language skills in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders

  Official Journal of the
Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
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To explore the relationship between ADHD symptoms and impairments we did a retrospective analysis of parent and teacher ratings of symptoms and impairment from the Vanderbilt Rating Scales using a national sample of children between the ages of 5-12. Overall, our findings showed a pattern in which specific ADHD symptoms are associated with specific areas of ADHD-related impairment and this pattern converged across parent- and teacher-ratings.
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This video describes a cross-sectional study using data from the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health on ADHD severity, after-school activities (ASA), and two domains of school functioning among children with ADHD: missed days from school and calls home from school. This study found that ASA participation is associated with decreased ADHD severity and reduced school absenteeism. Efforts to optimize ADHD outcomes should consider engaging children and adolescents in ASA.
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Infants’ sleeping patterns can influence parents’ sleep and their well-being. Infants’ sleeping problems can evoke negative emotions from their parents, due to the influence it has on parents’ lives. In a longitudinal design, we followed infants and their parents from 9 to 18 months. Children’s sleeping problems at 9 months predicted an increase in mothers’ (but not fathers’) negativity at 18 months. Parents’ negativity was not associated with infants’ sleep problems.
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Standard-setting organizations recommend screening adolescents for depression routinely and endorse the parent-completed, Pediatric Symptom Checklist's internalizing subscale (PSC-17P-INT) for this purpose. This study assessed the feasibility of screening electronically, prevalence of PSC-17P-INT risk, and rates of subsequent behavioral health service utilization in a sample of pediatric outpatients. Results showed that over two years, most patients (93.9%) were screened at both visits, those who screened at-risk were more likely to receive behavioral health services than those who screened negative but that for almost two-thirds of all positives, depression risk persisted into the second year, supporting the need for routine screening.
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A high proportion of children with history of trauma present for autism assessment whose presentation does not fit autism and fits well with trauma and stressor related disorder (TSRD). We found a tendency for parents seeking developmental diagnostic consultation to attribute to autism behavioral symptoms related to environmental stress. Current low levels of TSRD awareness prevent children who have experienced trauma from obtaining the therapies they need. We hope to raise awareness of TSRDs, with a goal of encouraging consistent screening for TSRDs in developmental diagnostic clinics, to promote advocacy for the development of appropriate services for children with TSRDs.
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Our study investigated the role of maternal mental health and family factors in discrepancies between mothers’ ratings of their adolescents’ psychosocial issues and adolescents’ ratings of their own problems. We measured associations between family factors such as adolescent age and sex, maternal age, parental levels of education, maternal IQ, and number of children in the home. Using data from a longitudinal public health study in Chile, we found that poor maternal mental health, and none of the family factors, was consistently related to larger discrepancies between maternal and adolescent ratings. This relationship was strongest in ratings of adolescents’ internalizing problems.
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Despite limited prior pediatric evidence, multiple genes are commonly included on pharmacogenomic panels to guide risperidone prescribing in children. This study examined the association between several genes (ABCB1, ABCG2, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, DRD2, DRD3, HTR2A, and HTR2C) and risperidone adverse events. In our cohort, only two genes, CYP2D6 and HTR2A showed an association with pediatric risperidone adverse events. Thus, more data is needed before utilizing pharmacogenomic data to guide risperidone prescribing in pediatric patients.
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Creator: Lindsay Olson
Duration: 4:49
Video DescriptionNote: This description is indexed by the journal search engine, please be as descriptive as possible; can accept HTML if sponsor wants to place a logo or image file Socioeconomic factors account for variability in language skills in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders
Creator: Kate Wallis, MD, MPH
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We describe our study that investigated referrals made in response to a positive developmental screen in primary care pediatrics. We asked whether disparities exist in which referrals are made or if referral varied by sex or among children from different racial, ethnic, and income backgrounds. Using data on screening and referral from the large primary care network at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, which screens children at 15, 18, 24 and 30 month visits with the survey of wellbeing in young children (SWYC), we found that 43% of children were not referred to early intervention after a positive screen.
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Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe pregnancy complication of monochorionic twins that results in discordant in utero environments for each genetically identical twin. The aim of this study was to test for differences in temperament between former donor and recipient twins. Parents of dual twin survivors aged 3-7 years who underwent in utero laser surgery for TTTS were surveyed using the Very Short Form of the Child Behavioral Questionnaire (VSF-CBQ). There were no statistically significant differences between the twins. Despite varied in utero environments, no temperament differences between donor/recipient twins were found for the population as a whole.
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We used semi-structured qualitative interviews with parents and service providers to better understand the barriers parents experience when obtaining services for their children with disabilities though state programs. We found that parents experienced emotional and system navigation barriers. Service providers reported that parents lacked information about services and that the process was arduous. Parents also reported barriers once services were initiated such as finding qualified personal support workers and the burdensome paperwork required. We created a solutions toolkit for the state and other organizations to undertake to increase consumer satisfaction and uptake of these life changing services for families.
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This video describes our study, Pediatric Provider Experiences with Implementation of Routine Mental Health Screening
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This study evaluated the intergenerational indirect effects of maternal childhood experiences on infant development through maternal scaffolding behaviors. Participants included 295 low-income mothers and their infants who were assessed prenatally and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. Results indicated that mothers who perceived their own mothers as highly supportive in childhood were more likely to engage in scaffolding behaviors with their infants, who in turn made greater developmental progress (e.g., showed less risk for developmental delay) at 12 months postpartum. Maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) were not associated with parenting or infant developmental progress.
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This video provides an overview of our recent study focused on a strengths-based approach to behavioral health screening in pediatric primary care.
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Duration: 4:50
Discussion of a research study examining post-traumatic stress symptoms of mothers and fathers across the first two years after the very preterm birth of their child. Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires at three time points, and we assessed change in post-traumatic stress symptoms over time as well as whether medical or social risk factors were associated with symptoms. Implications for future predictive research and clinical support are discussed.
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This study evaluates differences in how mothers and fathers perceive and respond to their adolescents’ chronic pain before and after The Comfort Ability Program (CAP), a one-day cognitive-behavioral intervention. Our research findings suggest that mothers and fathers have different thoughts and responses to their adolescents’ pain at baseline. Participating in CAP may help to align their thinking and promote more adaptive parent responses, reinforcing the value of including both parents in pediatric treatment for chronic pain. For more information about the program, please visit:
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Adults born preterm are at risk of attention problems. However, it is currently unclear as to why these problems come about. In this study of two prospective longitudinal cohorts, the BLS and EPICure, the attention problems and potential predictive factors of preterms and controls were assessed. Results highlighted the roles of executive functioning and general cognitive functioning in why preterms display more attention problems than controls, an important finding for potential interventions. Additionally, it highlighted the disparity between self-report, parent-report and experimenter ratings for attention problems with evidence that preterms do not believe themselves to have problems with attention
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School-age children with ADHD participated in an 8-week after-school Tai-Chi that showed robust reductions in core ADHD symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention after the mindful movement training. Reductions were also seen in associated features including emotion dysregulation and symptoms of ODD. These children also showed robust improvements on an objective assessment of developmental motor control, and these objective improvements in motor control were significantly associated with improvements in subjective parent ratings of ADHD behavior. This suggests that motor control may be a biomarker that could be targeted by the mindful movement intervention to improve behavior in children with ADHD.
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This video illustrates a study that assessed progress of the Healthy People 2020 objective to increase the proportion of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who receive treatment by 48 months old and that examined the relationship between predisposing, enabling, and need factors and age of initial treatment receipt. Authors used data from the National Survey of Children’s Health, 2016-2017 (N=1333). The HP2020 objective to enroll 57.6% of 8-year-old children with ASD in treatment by 48 months old was not met (40.9%). Findings indicate social inequities and significant differences by provider type and state mandate.