To determine the association between genetic variants reported to affect risperidone and adverse events (AEs) in children and adolescents.
Individuals aged 18 years or younger with ≥4 weeks of risperidone exposure in a deidentified DNA biobank were included. The primary outcome was AE frequency as a function of genotype. Individuals were classified according to metabolizer status for CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5; wild type, heterozygote, or homozygote for specific single nucleotide variants for DRD2, DRD3, HTR2A, and HTR2C; and wild type versus nonwild type for multiple uncommon variants in ABCG2, ABCB1, and HTR2C. Tests of association of each classification to AEs were performed using a Fisher exact test and logistic regression, and statistically significant classifications were included in a final logistic regression.
The final cohort included 257 individuals. AEs were more common in CYP2D6 poor/intermediate metabolizers (PMs/IMs) than normal/rapid/ultrarapid metabolizers (NMs/RMs/UMs) in univariate and multivariate analysis. HTR2A-rs6311 heterozygotes and homozygotes had fewer AEs than wild types in logistic regression but not in univariate analysis. In the final multivariable model adjusting for age, race, sex, and risperidone dose, AEs were associated with CYP2D6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.1–5.5, for PMs/IMs vs. NMs/RMs/UMs) and HTR2A-rs6311 (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4–0.9, for each variant allele), both consistent with previous studies.
Children and adolescents who are CYP2D6 PMs/IMs may have an increased risk for risperidone AEs. Of the genes and variants studied, only CYP2D6 has consistent association and sufficient data for clinical use, whereas HTR2A-rs6311 has limited data and requires further study.