This scoping review aims to provide a data mapping and narrative synthesis of the available peer-reviewed scientific literature on the translation and cultural adaptation processes relative to the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) as reported by the authors. It also seeks to paint an overall portrait of the implementation of the translated and culturally adapted ASQ worldwide.
Articles published between 1995 and May 11, 2018, were identified via systematic searches of peer-reviewed literature carried out using CINAHL, Scopus, MEDLINE, Education Source, PsycINFO, and ERIC. The articles included in the qualitative synthesis were coded based on an extraction form developed for the study.
In the 46 articles surveyed, 37 different cultural adaptations were identified in 29 languages and 27 countries. Translations were included in 33 cultural adaptations, and language modifications were reported in 18 adaptations. The forward-backward translation method was reported in 25 cases. The authors declared having made cultural content, language, visual, and/or conceptual modifications in 26 adaptations. Cultural content modifications were reported in 24 adaptations. At least one method (pilot study, individual interview, survey or focus group with respondents) was reported in 24 adaptations.
Cultural modifications were relatively minor and were, in general, made to establish equivalence with the source version. As well, the processes used to translate and culturally adapt the ASQ varied widely based on the types of methods. Additional work should be conducted to document the process of this crucial phase.