Original ArticleCo-Occurrence of Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Pediatric Sickle Cell DiseaseLance, Eboni I. MD, PhD*,†; Cannon, Alicia D. PhD‡; Shapiro, Bruce K. MD*,§; Lee, Li-Ching PhD‖; Johnston, Michael V. MD*,†; Casella, James F. MD§Author Information *Neurology and Developmental Medicine, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD; †Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; ‡Neuropsychology, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD; §Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; ‖Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD. Address for reprints: Eboni I. Lance, MD, Kennedy Krieger Institute, 801 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205; e-mail: [email protected]. Supported by the National Institutes of Health National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, K23 HL133455-01A1, E. I. Lance (PI). Disclosure: J. F. Casella holds a patent for aptamers that are potential treatments for sickle cell disease. Under a license agreement between Immunarray, Ltd., and the Johns Hopkins University, J. F. Casella is entitled to royalties on a license for a brain biomarker panel. This arrangement has been reviewed and approved by the Johns Hopkins University in accordance with its conflict of interest policies. Neither the aptamers nor any of the analytes involved in this panel were studied in this study. The remaining authors declare no conflict of interest. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics: August 2021 - Volume 42 - Issue 6 - p 463-471 doi: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000914 Buy Metrics Abstract Objective: The objective of this study is to retrospectively determine the co-occurrence, associated characteristics, and risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) in a pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) clinic population. Method: We investigated the co-occurrence and features of NDD in pediatric SCD through a retrospective cohort study conducted between July 2017 and January 2019. The participants were patients with SCD younger than 18 years of age identified from our institutions' clinic rosters and medical records databases. Results: A total of 276 participants were eligible for study inclusion, and 65 participants were found to have various NDD. Children with SCD and NDD were more likely to have a history of multiple SCD-related complications in comparison to children with SCD without NDD. Children with SCD and NDD were more likely to use disease-modifying therapies in comparison to children with SCD without NDD (χ2 27.2, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Children with SCD and NDD have higher odds of having certain disease-related complications and higher use of disease-modifying treatments than children with SCD who do not have NDD. Screening and diagnoses of NDD may be relevant to clinical management of pediatric SCD. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.