Special ArticleCombined Treatment for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Brief History, the Multimodal Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Study, and the Past 20 Years of ResearchPelham, William E. Jr PhD*,†; Altszuler, Amy R. PhD†Author Information *Department of Psychology, Florida International University, Miami, FL; †Center for Children and Families, Florida International University, Miami, FL. Address for reprints: William E. Pelham Jr, PhD, Department of Psychology, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th St, AHC 1 Room 140, Miami, FL 33199; e-mail: [email protected]. Research support was provided by the Institute of Education Sciences (R324J060024, R324B060045, LO3000065A, R324A120169, R305A170523, R324A160133, R305A150230, R324A180175), the National Institute of Mental Health (MH099030, MH069614, MH069434, MH092466, MH53554, MH065899, MH629988), the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (AA11873), and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA12414, DA12986, DA034731). Disclosure: The authors declare no conflicts to interest. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics: February/March 2020 - Volume 41 - Issue - p S88-S98 doi: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000777 Buy Metrics Abstract Decades of research support 3 interventions for youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): behavioral intervention, stimulant medication, and their combination. However, professional organizations have long disagreed regarding the best approach for implementing evidence-based interventions for ADHD in practice. The accompanying Society of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics guidelines for complex ADHD provide a framework for initiating treatment with behavioral intervention and adding stimulant medication as necessary, resulting in combined/multimodal treatment for many, if not most, children. In this special article, we review the extant literature on combined treatment, with special emphasis on the past 15 years of research that have led to the recommendation for this approach. Specifically, we review the literature on dosing and sequencing of multimodal treatment for youth with ADHD and the impact of multimodal interventions on areas of functional impairment. The extant research provides clear support for a psychosocial-first approach in treating youth with complex ADHD. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.