Few studies on child feeding have focused on family dynamics or disadvantaged families, yet feeding occurs in the complex social, economic, and relational context of the family. We examined how the level (high vs low) and concordance (concordant vs discordant) of nonresponsive feeding practices of mothers and fathers are associated with child fussy eating, in a socioeconomically disadvantaged Australian sample.
Mother-father pairs (N = 208) of children aged 2 to 5 years old independently completed validated questionnaires reporting their “persuasive feeding,” “reward for eating,” “reward for behavior,” and child's “food fussiness.” The fussiness scores did not differ between mother-father pairs and were averaged to derive a single dependent variable. K-means cluster analyses were used to assign mother-father pairs to clusters for each feeding practice, based on mean scores. Three ANCOVAs, corresponding to each feeding practice, tested differences in child fussiness across clusters while controlling for covariates.
Four clusters were identified for each feeding practice—concordant: (1) high (MHi/FHi) for both parents and (2) low (MLo/FLo) for both parents; and discordant: (3) high for mother but low for father (MHi/FLo); and (4) low for mother but high for father (MLo/FHi). For “persuasive feeding,” MLo/FLo reported lower levels of fussiness compared with MHi/FLo, MHi/FHi, and MLo/FHi (p values < 0.05). For “reward for eating,” MLo/FLo reported lower levels of fussiness than did MHi/FHi (p < 0.05). Child fussiness did not differ across “reward for behavior” clusters.
In socioeconomically disadvantaged families, when parents are concordant in avoiding nonresponsive feeding practices, less child “food fussiness” is reported. Findings suggest that feeding interventions should consider inclusion of both parents in 2-parent households.
*School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia;
†School of Psychology, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; and
‡Institute for Social Science Research, The University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, Queensland, Australia.
Address for reprints: Holly A. Harris, BSc, The University of Queensland, Herston Campus, Public Health Building, Herston, QLD 4006, Australia; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mums and Dads (MAD) for Mealtimes was supported by a grant from the Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation Child and Adolescent Health group (Queensland University of Technology). H. A. Harris was supported by a Research Training Program Scholarship provided by Queensland University of Technology for her doctorate.
Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
See the Video Abstract at jdbp.org
Received August 30, 2017
Accepted February 12, 2018