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School Dropout and Associated Factors Among Omani Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study

Mirza, Hassan, MD, MSc, ABPsych, PGCert*; Roberts, Emmert, MA, BMBCh, MRCP, MRCPsych, DFSRH; AL-Belushi, Mohammed, MD; AL-Salti, Humaid, BSc; AL-Hosni, Amira, MD, ABPsych*; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan, PhD, FRSS, FSMS§; AL-Adawi, Samir, MSc, PhD

Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics: February/March 2018 - Volume 39 - Issue 2 - p 109–115
doi: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000522
Original Articles

Objective: Despite the rising incidence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a dearth of studies examining the rate of school dropout and its correlates in non-Western populations.

Methods: Medical records were scrutinized to identify Omani children diagnosed with ADHD from 2006 to 2014 in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. The persistence of ADHD symptoms, school performance and dropout, as well as sociodemographic characteristics were examined.

Results: Three hundred sixty-seven children fulfilled the diagnosis of ADHD based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV) criteria and 16.6% of them had dropped out of school. School dropout was associated with poor school performance, comorbid conduct disorder, and parental divorce.

Conclusion: This study from Oman concurs with existing literature that school dropout is common among children with ADHD. Concerted efforts are needed to mitigate this trend. Management strategies should incorporate the treatment of comorbid conduct disorder.

*Department of Behavioural Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman;

Department of Psychological Medicine, King's College London, London, United Kingdom;

College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman;

§Department of Biostatistics, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India;

Department of Behavioural Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman.

Address for reprints: Hassan Mirza, MD, MSc, PGCert CBT, ABPsych, Department of Behavioural Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, P.O. Box 38 SQU, PC 123, Muscat, Oman; e-mail:

Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Received June 12, 2017

Accepted September 18, 2017

Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.